Schemes implemented for development of the tribal population

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  1. Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS)

Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS)is 100% grant from Government of India (since 1977-78). It is charged to Consolidated Fund of India (except grants for North Eastern States, a voted item) and is an additive to State Plan funds and efforts for Tribal Development. This grant is utilized for economic development of Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) Pockets and Clusters, PVTGs and dispersed tribal population.

2. Grants-in-Aid under Article 275(1) of the Constitution

  Grants-in-aid under Proviso to Article 275(1) of Constitution of India is 100% annual grant from Government of India to States. It is charged to Consolidated Fund of India (except grants for North Eastern States, a voted item) and is an additive to State Plan funds and efforts for Tribal Development. Funds are utilized for socio-economic development ofIntegrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA),Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) Pockets and Clusters and forPVTGs.

  1. Scheme of Grant-in-Aid to Voluntary Organizations working for the Welfare of Scheduled Tribes
  • The Scheme was launched in 1953-54 and was last revised w.e.f. 1st April 2008. The prime objective of the scheme is to enhance the reach of welfare schemes of Government and fill the gaps in service deficient tribal areas, in the sectors such as education, health, drinking water, agro-horticultural productivity, social security net etc. through the efforts of voluntary organizations, and to provide favourable environment for socio-economic upliftment and overall development of the Scheduled Tribes (STs). Any other innovative activity having direct positive impact on the socio-economic development or livelihood generation of STs may also be considered through voluntary efforts.  The scheme is Central Sector Scheme.  The grants are provided to the non-governmental organizations on application, in a prescribed format, duly recommended by the multi-disciplinary State Level Committee of the concerned State Government/UT Administration. Funds are generally provided to the extent of 90% by the Government. The voluntary organization is expected to bear the remaining 10% balance from its own resources.

  1. Scheme of Strengthening Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts

The scheme aims to bridge the gap in literacy levels between the general female population and tribal women, in the identified districts or blocks, more particularly in naxal affected areas and in areas inhabited by Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), by creating the required ambience for education for ST girls. It is a Central Sector gender specific scheme and the Ministry provides 100% funding. The grants are provided to the eligible NGOs on an application (in the prescribed format) duly recommended by the multidisciplinary State Level Committee of the concerned State Government / UT Administration. The Scheme has been revised with effect from 1.4.2008. It is being implemented in 54 identified low literacy districts where ST Population is 25% or more and ST female literacy rate is below 35% as per 2001 Census. 

  1. Scheme of Vocational Training in Tribal Areas

The main aim of the Scheme is to develop the skills of the ST youth for a variety of jobs as well as self-employment and to improve their socio-economic condition by enhancing their income. The scheme covers all the States and Union Territories.  It is not an area-specific scheme, the condition being that free vocational training facilities are extended only to tribal youth, 100% grants under the scheme are provided to the States, Union Territories and other Associations implementing the Scheme. Each Vocational Training Centre (VTC) under the scheme may cater to five vocational courses in traditional skills depending upon the employment potential of the area. It has been decided to discontinue the Scheme from 2018-19 and the intervention is to be subsumed under the Scheme Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS).

  1. Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

In 1998-99, a 100% Central Sector Scheme for exclusive development of PVTGs was started. The scheme was revised w.e.f. 1.4.2015, to make it more effective.  The scheme covers only the 75 identified Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. The scheme is very flexible and it enables every State to focus on any developmental activity for PVTGs, viz., housing, land distribution, land development, agricultural growth, cattle development, connectivity, installation of non-conventional sources of energy for lighting purpose, social security or any other innovative activity meant for the comprehensive socio-economic development of PVTGs.

  1. Scheme of Girls & Boys Hostels for STs

Under the scheme, Central assistance is given to States/UTs/Universities for construction of new hostel buildings and/or extension of existing hostels. The scheme has been revised w.e.f. 1.4.2008. Under the revised scheme, State Governments are eligible for 100% central share for construction of all Girls’ hostel and also for construction of Boys’ hostel in naxal affected areas (identified by Ministry of Home Affairs from time to time). The funding pattern for the other Boys’ Hostel to State Governments is on 50:50 basis. In case of UTs, the Central Government bears the entire cost of construction of both Boys’ and Girls’ hostels. Hostels for Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) for ST Girls and Boys are funded on the same criteria as other hostels. Members of Parliament could also provide funds as a substitute of State share from their MPLAD scheme for this purpose. Maintenance of the hostel is the responsibility of the concerned States/UTs. The hostels may be for middle, secondary, college or university level education. It has been decided to discontinue the Scheme from 2018-19 and the intervention is to be subsumed under the Scheme Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS).

8. Scheme of Ashram Schools in Tribal Sub-Plan Area

The objective of the scheme is to provide residential schools for STs in an environment conducive to learning to increase the literacy rate among the tribal students and to bring them at par with other population of the country. The scheme has been revised with effect from the financial year 2008-09. Under the revised scheme, State Governments are eligible for 100% central share for construction of all Girls’ Ashram Schools and also for construction of Boys’ Ashram Schools in naxal affected areas (identified by Ministry of Home Affairs from time to time). The funding pattern for the other Boys’ Ashram Schools is on 50:50 basis, while cent percent assistance is given to UTs for construction of both Girls and Boys’ Ashram Schools. The scheme covers primary, middle, secondary and senior secondary level of education. It has been decided to discontinue the Scheme from 2018-19 and the intervention is to be subsumed under the Scheme Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS).

  1. Scholarship Schemes

The Ministry is implementing the following Scholarship schemes for ST students in the country with a view to provide financial assistance to them, so as to enable them to complete their education:

 (i) Pre-Matric Scholarship for ST students (9th& 10thStd)

(ii)Post-Matric Scholarship for ST students (Class 11thonwards)

(iii) National Fellowship and Scholarship for Higher Education of ST students

(iv) National Overseas Scholarship (NOS) for ST candidates for studying abroad

The Schemes mentioned at (i) and (ii) above are implemented through the States / UTs, and funds are released to States / UTs for disbursement to eligible ST students. Under these schemes, viz., Pre-Matric Scholarship and Post-Matric Scholarship for ST students, the funds are being shared at the ratio of 75:25 between the Centre and State Government/UTs, and 90:10 for the North Eastern States and Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.

  1. the scheme (iii) above, funds are released to the Institutes / students, and under NOS scheme, funds are released to Ministry of External Affairs on reimbursement basis.

10. Support to Tribal Research Institute (TRIs)

Tribal Research Institutes (TRIs) have been set up by various State Governments. The basic objective of the scheme is to strengthen the Tribal Research Institutes (TRIs) in their infrastructural needs, Research & Documentation activities and Training & Capacity Building programmes, etc. It is envisaged that TRIs should work as body of knowledge & research more or less as a think tank for tribal development, preservation of tribal cultural heritage, providing inputs to States for evidence based planning and appropriate legislations, capacity building of tribals and persons / institutions associated with tribal affairs, dissemination of information and creation of awareness.Funding under this Scheme is 100% Grant-in-Aid by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs to the TRIs on need basis.

11. Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP)and Development of Value Chain for MFP

Minimum Support Price for Minor Forest Produce scheme ) MSP for MFP Scheme), started by Ministry of Tribal Affairs in the year 2013-14, was the first step in the direction of providing fair price to tribals.Initially, the scheme included 10 MFPs in 9 States. It was later expanded to 24 MFPs and in all States.The Scheme is implemented through State level agency (SLA) appointed by the State Government. Ministry of Tribal Affairs provides a revolving fund to the SLA.Loss, if any, is shared by Centre and State in the ratio of 75:25. Presently, the scheme has a coverage of 23 MFPs and applicability to all States.

12.National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC), under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, extends financial assistance at concessional rates of interest to Scheduled Tribes for undertaking income generation activities. NSTFDC implements following schemes for self-employment of Scheduled Tribes who are unemployed or underemployed:

  • Term Loan scheme: NSTFDC provides Term Loan for any income generation scheme costing upto ₹25.00 lakhs per unit. The financial assistance is extended upto 90% of the cost of the scheme and the balance is met by way of subsidy/ promoter’s contribution/ margin money. The interest rate chargeable is 6% p.a. for loan upto ₹ 5 lakhs, 8% p.a. for loans ranging between ₹ 5 lakhs to ₹ 10 lakhs and 10% p.a. for loan exceeding ₹10 lakhs on the entire amount of loan.
  • AdivasiMahilaSashaktikaran Yojana (AMSY): Under the scheme, Scheduled Tribes women can undertake any income generation activity. Loans upto 90% for scheme costing upto ₹1 lakh are provided at a concessional rate of interest of 4% p.a.
  • Micro Credit Scheme for Self Help Groups: The Corporation provides loans upto ₹50,000/- per member and ₹ 5 Lakhs per Self Help Group (SHG). The interest rate chargeable is 6% p.a.
  • Adivasi Shiksha Rrinn Yojana: Under this scheme, financial assistance upto ₹5.00 lakh at concessional rate of interest of 6% per annum is provided to ST students for pursuing professional/ technical education including Ph.D. in India.

Source:TPIB