- The Swachh Bharat Mission, launched in October 2014, consists of two sub-missions – the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) (SBM-G), which will be implemented in rural areas, and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), which will be implemented in urban areas.
- SBM-G seeks to eliminate open defecation in rural areas by 2019 through improving access to sanitation. It also seeks to generate awareness to motivate communities to adopt sustainable sanitation practices, and encourage the use of appropriate technologies for sanitation.
Guidelines for Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
The guidelines for SBM-G, released earlier this month, outline the strategy to be adopted for its implementation, funding, and monitoring.
Objectives: Key objectives of SBM-G include:
(i) improving the quality of life in rural areas through promoting cleanliness and eliminating open defecation by 2019,
(ii) motivating communities and panchayati raj institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices,
(iii) encouraging appropriate technologies for sustainable sanitation, and
(iv) developing community managed solid and liquid waste management systems.
Institutional framework: While NBA had a four tier implementation mechanism at the state, district, village, and block level, an additional tier has been added for SBM-G, at the national level.
Thus, the implementation mechanisms at the five levels will consist of:
(i) National Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin),
(ii) State Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin),
(iii) District Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin),
(iv) Block Programme Management Unit, and
(v) Gram Panchayat/Village and Water Sanitation Committee. At the Gram Panchayat level, Swachhta Doots may be hired to assist with activities such as identification of beneficiaries, IEC, and maintenance of records.
Planning: As was done under NBA, each state must prepare an Annual State Implementation Plan. Gram Panchayats must prepare implementation plans, which will be consolidated into Block Implementation Plans. These Block Implementation Plans will further be consolidated into District Implementation Plans. Finally, District Implementation Plans will be consolidated in a State Implementation Plan by the State Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
A Plan Approval Committee in Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation will review the State Implementation Plans. The final State Implementation Plan will be prepared by states based on the allocation of funds, and then approved by National Scheme Sanctioning Committee of the Ministry.
Funding: Funding for SBM-G will be through budgetary allocations of the central and state governments, the Swachh Bharat Kosh, and multilateral agencies. The Swachh Bharat Kosh has been established to collect funds from non-governmental sources.
The key components of the implementation of SBM-G will include:
(i) start up activities including preparation of state plans,
(ii) IEC activities,
(iii) capacity building of functionaries,
(iv) construction of household toilets,
(v) construction of community sanitary complexes,
(vi) a revolving fund at the district level to assist Self Help Groups and others in providing cheap finance to their members
(vii) funds for rural sanitary marts, where materials for the construction of toilets, etc., may be purchased, and
(viii) funds for solid and liquid waste management.
Under SBM-G, construction of toilets in government schools and aganwadis will be done by the Ministry of Human Resource Development and Ministry of Women and Child Development, respectively. Previously, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation was responsible for this.
- Swachh Bharat Missions (Gramin) at the national, state, and district levels will each have monitoring units. Annual monitoring will be done at the national level by third party independent agencies.
- In addition, concurrent monitoring will be done, ideally at the community level, through the use of Information and Communications Technology.
Reference: PRS India