Test Vehicle Demonstration (TVD-1)


  • The Test Vehicle Demonstration (TVD-1) flight will be a significant milestone toward realising the nation’s ambitious Gaganyaan programme.

Key Details

  • Indigenously developed parachutes for the safe return of the capsule that will carry astronauts under the proposed Gaganyaan programme are set to undergo fitment tests at an Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) facility in Bengaluru.
  • The Aerial Delivery Research and Development Establishment (ADRDE), the Agra-based laboratory under the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), has developed the parachutes for India’s manned space flight programme, Gaganyaan, which envisages putting a crew of three astronauts in low-earth orbit.

    Test Vehicle Demonstration (TVD-1)
    Credit: The Hindu
  • The parachute configuration consists of 10 parachutes. During flight the sequence starts with deployment of two parachutes of “apex cover separation parachute”, which is protection cover for the crew module parachute compartment, followed by two more of “drogue parachute deployment” to stabilise and bring down the velocity.
  • India’s maiden human space flight ‘H1’ mission is targeted to be launched in the fourth quarter of 2024. 
  • In view of the paramount importance of crew safety, two test vehicle missions are planned before the ‘G1’ mission to demonstrate the performance of crew escape system and parachute-based deceleration system for different flight conditions.
  • The uncrewed ‘G1’ mission is targeted to be launched in the last quarter of 2023 followed by the second uncrewed ‘G2’ mission in the second quarter of 2024, before the final human space flight ‘H1’ mission in the fourth quarter of 2024.
  • The first uncrewed flight ‘G1’ mission is aimed at validating the performance of human-rated launch vehicle, orbital module propulsion system, mission management, communication system and recovery operations. The mission will carry a humanoid as payload.

Source: TH

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