Tiger Reserves in India UPSC

Context

  • There are 52 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
  • India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014 and 2967 in 2018.
  • Under section 38V (1) of the Wild Life Protection Act 1972, “The state government shall on the recommendation of the tiger conservation authority, notify an area as Tiger Reserve”. So, it becomes mandatory for the state to accept the recommendation.
  • No alteration in the boundaries of a tiger reserve shall be made except on a recommendation of the National Tiger Conservation Authority and the approval of the National Board for Wild Life.
  • No State Government shall de-notify a tiger reserve, except in public interest with the approval of the National Tiger Conservation Authority and the approval of the National Board for Wild Life.
  • Critical ‘tiger’ habitats (CTHs): Also known as core areas of tiger reserves—are identified under the Wild Life Protection Act (WLPA), 1972. “Such areas are required to be kept as inviolate for the purpose of tiger conservation, without affecting the rights of the Scheduled Tribes or such other forest dwellers”. The notification of CTH is done by the state government in consultation with the expert committee constituted for the purpose. 
  • Recently, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has given the green signal to Ramgarh Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary as 52nd Tiger Reserve of India located in the state of Rajasthan. It is the fourth tiger reserve in Rajasthan.

List of Tiger Reserve in India : State Wise

Sl. NoStateName of Tiger Reserve
1Andhra PradeshNagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve
2Arunachal PradeshPakke Tiger Reserve
3Arunachal PradeshKamlang Tiger Reserve
4Arunachal PradeshNamdapha National Park
5AssamKaziranga National Park
6AssamOrang Tiger Reserve
7AssamNameri National Park
8AssamManas Tiger Reserve
9BiharValmiki National Park
10ChhattisgarhIndravati Tiger Reserve
11ChhattisgarhUdanti-Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary
12ChhattisgarhAchanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary
13JharkhandPalamau Tiger Reserve
14KarnatakaBiligiri Ranganatha Temple Tiger reserve
15KarnatakaNagarahole National Park
16KarnatakaDandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve
17KarnatakaBandipur Tiger Reserve
18KarnatakaBhadra Wildlife Sanctuary
19KeralaParambikulam Tiger reserve
20KeralaPeriyar Tiger reserve
21Madhya PradeshSanjay-Dubri Tiger reserve
22Madhya PradeshSatpura Tiger reserve
23Madhya PradeshBandhavgarh Tiger reserve
24Madhya Pradesh & MaharashtraPench Tiger reserve
25Madhya PradeshKanha Tiger reserve
26Madhya PradeshPanna Tiger reserve
27MaharashtraBor Tiger Reserve
28MaharashtraNagzira Tiger Reserve
29MaharashtraSahyadri Tiger Reserve
30MaharashtraTadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve
31MaharashtraMelghat Tiger reserve
32MizoramDampa Tiger Reserve
33OdishaSatkosia Tiger Reserve
34OdishaSimilipal Tiger Reserve
35RajasthanRanthambore Tiger Reserve
36RajasthanMukundara Hills Tiger Reserve
37RajasthanSariska Tiger Reserve
38RajasthanRamgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve
39Tamil NaduMudumalai Tiger Reserve
40Tamil NaduKalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
41Tamil NaduAnamalai Tiger Reserve (Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park)
42Tamil NaduSathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
43Tamil NaduSrivilliputhur Megamalai Tiger Reserve
44TelanganaKawal Tiger Reserve
45TelanganaAmrabad Tiger Reserve
46Uttar PradeshDudhwa Tiger Reserve
47Uttar PradeshPilibhit Tiger Reserve
48Uttar PradeshAmangarh Tiger Reserve
49UttarakhandCorbett National Park
50UttarakhandRajaji Tiger Reserve
51West BengalSundarbans National Park
52West BengalBuxa Tiger Reserve

 

 TIGER RESERVES IN INDIA UPSC

KAMLANG TIGER RESERVE , ARUNACHAL

  • Kamlang river
  • Lohit district
  • Tropical, Subtropical
  • Tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, snow leopard
  • Mishmi, Digaru, Mizo tribes
  • It is separated from Namdapha by the Lang River
  • Lang River forms its northern border and the Namdapha National Park is on its southern border. 

NAMDAPHA TIGER RESERVE, ARUNACHAL

  • Changlang district near the international border with Myanmar
  • Biodiversity hotspots in Eastern Himalayas
  • The fourth-largest national park of India
  • Mishmi and Patkai Bum hills
  • Evergreen, tropical, semi-tropical, temperate, arctic
  • Northernmost lowland evergreen rainforests
  • Tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, snow leopard
  • Palearctic and Indo-Malayan biogeographic areas
  • Namdapha Flying Squirrel which is endemic and critically endangered
  • Dhole, red panda, marbled cat, fishing cat, binturong, takin, Bharal, serow, capped langur

PAKHUI (PAKKE) TIGER RESERVE, ARUNACHAL

  • East Kameng District
  • Won India Biodiversity Award 2016 in the category of ‘Conservation of threatened species’ for its Hornbill Nest Adoption Programme Kameng River
  • Lies in the undulating and hilly foothills of the Eastern Himalayas
  • Bounded by Bhareli or Kameng River in the west and north, and by Pakke River in the east. It is surrounded by contiguous forests on most sides. To the east lies Papum Reserve Forest 
  • The sanctuary adjoins reserve forests and Assam’s Nameri National Park
  • West of Kameng River are Sessa Orchid Sanctuary and Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Sanctuary slopes southwards towards the river valley of the Brahmaputra River
  • habitat types are lowland semi-evergreen, evergreen forest and Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests.
  • Nameri National Park of Assam is nearby.

KAZIRANGA TIGER RESERVE, ASSAM

  • Golaghat, Karbi Angling and Nagaon districts
  • Famous for Great One-horned rhinoceros
  • Elephants, wild water buffalo
  • Flat expanses of fertile, alluvial soil, formed by erosion and silt deposition by the River Brahmaputra
  • Elephant reserve, National park, Biodiversity hotspot
  • It is not a biosphere reserve.
  • Important bird area by Birdlife International
  • Located on the edge of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot
  • breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer
  • vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests, criss-crossed by four major rivers
  • A World Heritage Site by UNESCO

MANAS TIGER RESERVE, ASSAM

  • A national park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve and a biosphere reserve
  • Royal Manas NP in Bhutan is contiguous
  • Manas river flows through it which is a tributary of Brahmaputra river
  • Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur, pygmy hog, wild water buffalo
  • Famous for its population of the wild water buffalo

NAMERI TIGER RESERVE, ASSAM

  • Eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District
  • Lies just south of Pakke Tiger Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh
  • Main Rivers are Jia- Bhoroli and Bor Dikorai.
  • The Jia Bhoroli river of Assam was famous since the time of British for the golden mahseer angling
  • Habitat-semi-evergreen, moist deciduous forests with cane and bamboo brakes and narrow strips of open grassland
  • best sighting spot of the endangered bird White- winged Duck (State bird of Assam)
  • Ibisbill and Merganser are the two species of migratory birds visit the park every winter.

ORANG TIGER RESERVE, ASSAM

  • Brahmaputra river
  • Darrang and Sonitpur district
  • Indian Rhinoceros, Pygmy hog, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo, Bengal tiger
  • Only stronghold of rhinoceros on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river.
  • Formed of alluvial flood plains of the many rivers and is an integral part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

DAMPA TIGER RESERVE, MIZORAM

  • Lushai Hills
  • Tropical forests 
  • In the tiger census of 2018, no tiger was found in this reserve.
  • Rare floral species have been found in including rare ginger species Globba spathulata and Hemiorchis pantlingii.

RAJAJI TIGER RESERVE, UTTARAKHAND

  • Shivaliks
  • Nestled between the Shivalik ranges and the Indo-Gangetic plains
  • 03 districts of Uttarakhand:  Haridwar, Dehradun and Pauri Garhwal.
  • Named after C. Rajagopalchari
  • Ganga and Song rivers
  • Goral is found here
  • Asian elephant, Bengal tiger, Leopard, Jungle cat, striped hyena, Goral

JIM CORBETT TIGER RESERVE, UTTARAKHAND

  • Oldest NP of India, created in 1936
  • Earlier called Hailey National Park
  • Nainital and Pauli Garhwal districts
  • Ramganga river
  • The first national park of Asia
  • One of the thirteen protected areas covered by the World-Wide Fund For Nature under their Terai Arc Landscape Program
  • The program aims to protect three of the five terrestrial flagship species, the tiger, the Asian elephant and the great one-horned rhinoceros
  • Spotted dear, sambar deer, elephant, tawny fish owl, golden jackal
  • Encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river
  • located partly along a valley between the Lesser Himalaya in the north and the Shivaliks in the south, has a sub-Himalayan belt structure
  • Formerly part of the princely state of Tehri Garhwal
  • 1st to come under Project Tiger initiative

DUDHWA TIGER RESERVE, UTTAR PRADESH

  • Billy Arjan Singh
  • Located on the Indo-Nepal border in the Lakhimpur Kheri District
  • Indian rhinoceros
  • Terai belt of marshy grasslands
  • Together with the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and the Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary it forms the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
  • Stronghold of the barasingha. Around half of the world’s barasinghas are present 
  • Extreme humid subtropical with dry winters (CWa) type of climate
  • Falls within the Upper Gangetic plains and is a vast alluvial plain
  • Swamp deer, Sambar deer, barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sloth beer, ratel, jackal, civets, jungle cats, fishing cat, leopard cat

PILIBHIT TIGER RESERVE, UTTAR PRADESH

  • Pilibhit, Lakhimpur Kheri, Bahraich districts
  • River Sharada (Mahakali), River Ghagara
  • Form’s part of the Terai Arc Landscape in the upper Gangetic Plain along the India-Nepal border.
  • Characterized by sal forests, tall grasslands and swamp
  • Sharda Sagar Dam is on the boundary of the reserve
  • Got the first International award TX2 for doubling the tiger population in a stipulated time
  • North Indian moist deciduous type, with sal Shorea robusta forests.
  • Sal woodland is very dense with good natural regeneration
  • The important linkages are:
    • Surahi range- Terai East Division Uttarakhand
    • Lagga-Bagga – Shuklaphanta National Park (Nepal)
    • Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary – Dudhwa

VALMIKI TIGER RESERVE, BIHAR

  • Located at the India-Nepal border
  • West Champaran district
  • Royal Chitwan national park of Nepal is contiguous
  • River Gandak
  • extensive forest area of Valmikinagar (formally known as Bhainsa Lotan)
  • Barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sambar, blue bull, spotted hyena, leopard cat, wild cat, fishing cat, flying squirrel, clouded leopard, Indian gaur, Mongoose
  • encompasses foothills ranges of Himalayan Sivaliks with mosaic of the cliffs, ridges, gorges
  • Situated in Gangetic plains bio-geographic zone of the Country, the forest has combination of bhabar and terai tracts. 
  • only National park in Bihar
  • harbors vivid socio-cultural diversity. ‘Tharu’, a scheduled tribe, is the dominant community
  • scheduled tribes other than Tharu in the Valmiki landscape are collectively called Dhangar – which means retained labourer in Oraon dialect.
  • Dhangar comprises four tribes: Oraon, Munda, Lohra and Bhuiya. The ‘Dhangars’ were brought to area as agriculture laborer from the Chhotanagpur Hills. Each Dhangar tribe has its own dialect and they observe their traditional festivals.

PALAMU TIGER RESERVE, JHARKHAND

  • Betla NP and Palamu WS (Latehar district)
  • One among the original 9 tiger reserves
  • North Koel river
  • White Vultures

SUNDERBANS TIGER RESERVE, WEST BENGAL

  • NP, TR, BR & Ramsar Site
  • Ganges Delta
  • Mangrove- ecotone
  • Only mangrove forest in the world inhabited by tigers.
  • Also, in Bangladesh
  • One amongst the initial nine Tiger Reserves constituted at the time of inception of the Project Tiger
  • Bound by the river Matla in the west
  • Rivers Kalindi and Harinbhanga and Raimongal in the east form the international boundary with Bangladesh, south of the Reserve lies the Bay of Bengal, northwest is bounded by rivers Bidya, Gomdi
  • Saltwater crocodile /Bengal Tigger
  • UNESCO World Heritage site

BUXA TIGER RESERVE, WEST BENGAL

  • North part of WB / Gangetic Plains
  • East of Manas TR
  • lies in Alipurduar district 
  • northern boundary runs along the international border with Bhutan
  • Sinchula hill range lies all along the northern side of BTR and the eastern boundary touches that of the Assam state
  • The Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary of Bhutan is contiguous to the north 
  • south-west, the Chilapata Forests form an elephant corridor to the Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Asian elephant, gaur, sambar deer, clouded leopard, Indian leopard, Bengal tiger
  • Rajabhatkhawa Vulture Breeding Centre

SIMLIPAL TIGER RESERVE, ODISHA

  • Mayurbhanj district
  • Red silk cotton trees
  • World Network of Biosphere Reserves
  • 12 small rivers are there
  • Part of the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve, which includes three protected areas — Similipal Tiger Reserve, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary and Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary
  • 7th largest national park
  • Waterfalls like Joranda and Barehipani Falls.
  • Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, gaur, chausingha
  • High hills surround Meghasani / Tunkiburu, the highest peak

SATKOSIA TIGER RESERVE, ODISHA

  • Angul district of Odisha
  • Mahanadi river & Eastern Ghats mountains
  • Comprises the Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary and the adjacent Baisipalli Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Slightly southward of Simlipal TR
  • Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), which had approved the transfer of six tigers from the wild of Madhya Pradesh’s Kanha National Park to Satkosia Tiger Reserve in Odisha

RANTHAMBORE TIGER RESERVE, RAJASTHAN

  • Sawai Man Singh Sanctuary and Keladevi Sanctuary
  • Indian leopard, Nilgai, Wild boar, Sambar, Striped hyena, Sloth bear
  • Three red Karauli stone temples devoted to Ganesh, Shiva and Ramlalaji.
  • North by the Banas River and to the south by the Chambal River
  • Digamber Jain temple of Lord Sumatinath and Lord Sambhavanath
  • Padam Talao is the largest of the many lakes in the park. A red sandstone Jogi Mahal is at the edge of the lake. A gigantic Banyan tree, considered to be India’s second largest, is also near the lake

SARISKA TIGER RESERVE, RAJASTHAN

  • Alwar district
  • Copper and marble mining
  • Indian leopard, jungle cat, caracal, striped hyena, golden jackal, chital, sambar deer, nilgai
  • Scrub-thorn arid forests, dry deciduous forests, grasslands, and rocky hills
  • 1st reserve in the world with successfully relocated tigers
  • An important biodiversity area in the Northern Aravalli leopard and wildlife corridor.
  • Part of the Aravalli Range and the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion.
  • All tigers in Sariska became extinct in 2005

MUKANDRA HILLS TIGER RESERVE, RAJASTHAN

  • Darrah, Chambal and Jawahar Sagar WSs
  • Chambal river
  • Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Spread across 4 districts – Bundi, Kota, Jhalawar & Chittorgarh
  • 04 rivers that flow in this region, the rivers are Chambal river, Kali river, Ahu river, Ramzan river.
  • 02 parallel mountains viz. Mukundra and Gargola.
  • It was considered for the introduction of the Asiatic lion.

ACHANMAKAR TIGER RESERVE, CHATTISGARH

  • Mungeli district
  • Achanmakar- Amarkantak BR
  • Indian leopard, gaur, chital, striped hyena, Indian jackal, sloth bear
  • Linked by the hilly Kanha-Achanakmar Corridor to the tiger reserve in Kanha, Madhya Pradesh
  • Close to Amarkantak, the source of the Son River and Narmada River.

UDANTI-SITANADI TIGER RESERVE, CHATTISGARH

  • located in Dhamtari District
  • Udanti and Sitanadi
  • Udanti River flowing from the west to east
  • Sitanadi River that originates in the middle of sanctuary

INDRAVATI TIGER RESERVE, CHATTISGARH

  • Indravati river flows from east to west and forms the northern boundary of the reserve with the Indian state of Maharashtra
  • Bijapur District
  • Tropical moist and dry deciduous type with predominance of bamboo, sal and teak
  • One of the last populations of rare wild buffalo
  • Wild Asian buffalo, Nilgai, Blackbuck, Chowsingha, sambar, chital, Indian muntjac, tiger, leopard, sloth bear, dholes

PANNA TIGER RESERVE, MADHYA PRADESH

  • Located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts
  • Will be submerged because of Ken-Betwa interlinking
  • Ken river passes through it
  • Continuity of the Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests belt, which starts from Cape Comorin in South India, is broken and beyond this the Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests of the great Indo-Gangetic Plain begins.
  • 2012 tiger extinction
  • Ken Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Chital, chinkara, nilgai, sambar, sloth bear

BANDHAVGARH TIGER RESERVE, MADHYA PRADESH

  • Umaria district
  • Maharaja Martand Singh of Rewa captured the first white tiger in this region in 1951
  • Sambar, barking deer, nilgai, caracal, striped hyena, Indian wolf, Sarus Crane
  • Main zones of the national park are Tala, Magdhi and Khitauli.

SANJAY-DHUBRI TIGER RESERVE, MADHYA PRADESH

  • Some part is in Chattisgarh (Guru Ghasidas NP)
  • Koriya (last known territory of the Asiatic cheetah in India) District of Chattisgarh and Sidhi, Singrauli districts of Madhya Pradesh
  • Bengal tiger, the Indian Leopard, spotted deer, sambar deer, wild boar, nilgai, chinkara, civet, porcupine
  • Located in the Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests ecoregion
  • mostly composed of tropical forests of Sakhua (Shorea robusta) trees
  • Comprises Sanjay National Park and the Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary

KANHA TIGER RESERVE, MADHYA PRADESH

  • Kanha-Kisli National Park
  • Largest NP of Madhya Pradesh & Central India
  • Royal Bengal Tiger, Indian leopards, Sloth Bear, Barasingha, Indian wild Dog
  • The forest is depicted in Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Book
  • two protected areas, Hallon and Banjar
  • First TR to have a mascot- Bhoorsingh, the Barasingha
  • Baiga Tribe

SATPURA TIGER RESERVE, MADHYA PRADESH

  • Hoshangabad District (newly named Narmadapuram)
  • Satpura Range
  • Indian bison, tigers, Dholes, Blackbuck, Porcupine,Sambar,Barasingha, Flying Squirrels
  • Adjoining Bori and Pachmarhi wildlife sanctuaries
  • Mount Dhoopgarh is the highest peak

PENCH TIGER RESERVE-MADHYA PRADESH & MAHARASHTRA

  • Straddle across two states – Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
  • Southern slopes of Satpura
  • Pench river emerges from Mahadeo Hills of Satpuda Ranges and flows from North to South before going on to join the Kanhan River, while splitting the Park into two, and forming the boundary of Seoni District and Chhindwara District districts of Madhya Pradesh
  • Chital, Sambar, Gaur, Nilgai, Wild pig, Indian muntjac, Chowsingha
  • Well-forested areas of Seoni and Chhindwara districts
  • National Highway 7 and has two famous entry gates, Turiya and Karmajhiri
  • Described in Ain-i-Akbari, and is the setting of Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book

NAWAGAON-NAGZIRA TIGER RESERVE, MAHARASTRA

  • Nawagaon means new village
  • Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
  • Gondia district
  • Formed out of 2 WSs
  • Southern tropical dry deciduous forest

BOR TIGER RESERVE, MAHARASTRA

  • Wardha district
  • Bor Dam
  • Centrally located among several other Bengal tiger habitats including Pench Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra, to the northeast; Nagzira Navegaon Tiger Reserve, to the east northeast; Umred Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary, to the east southeast; Tadoba – Andhari Tiger Reserve, to the southeast; Melghat Tiger Reserve, to the west northwest and Satpura National Park and Tiger Reserve, to the northwest.
  • South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion, with the main species being teak, ain, tendu

TADOBA- ANDHARI TIGER RESERVE, MAHARASTRA

  • Tadoba NP and Andhari WS
  • Maharastra’s oldest and largest NP in MH
  • Chandrapura district
  • Andhari river
  • Tadoba Reserve covers the Chimur Hills, and the Andhari sanctuary covers the Moharli and Kolsa ranges
  • Gond kings once ruled these forests in the vicinity of the Chimur hills
  • Predominantly southern tropical dry deciduous forest 

SAHYADARI TIGER RESERVE, MAHARASTRA

  • Westernmost TR of India
  • Part of the ecoregions of North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests and North Western Ghats montane rain forests
  • Form a common boundary between Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa, and constitute rich evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests
  • Spread over the four districts of Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri
  • Spreads over Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary forming the northern portion and Chandoli National Park forming the southern part of the reserve. Recently reserve is extended towards Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary.

MELGHAT TIGER RESERVE, MAHARASTRA

  • Among the first 9 TR
  • Northern part of Amravati district
  • Tapti River and the Gawilgadh ridge of the Satpura Range
  • Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Sloth bear, Indian jackal, sambar, gaur, barking deer, nilgai, cheetal
  • tropical dry deciduous in nature, dominated by teak 

NAGARJUNASAGAR SRISAILAM TIGER RESERVE

  • Found both in AP and Telangana
  • Nallamalla hills
  • Spreads over five districts, Kurnool District, Prakasam District, Guntur District, Nalgonda District and Mahbubnagar district.
  • Krishna river
  • southern tropical dry mixed deciduous forest, Hardwickia forest and Deccan thorn scrub forests with much Euphorbia scrub
  • Largest TR of India

AMRABAD TIGER RESERVE, TELANGANA

  • Lies in the Nallamala Hills of Telangana.
  • It is India’s second-largest tiger reserve, next only to Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana).
  • It has a large presence of the Chenchu tribe.
  • Relics of the fort of Ikshwaku Chandragupta, a ruler of the 3rd century BC are also found
  • Contains ruins of the ancient Nagarjuna Viswa Vidyalayam run by the great Buddhist scholar Nagarjunacharya (150 AD)
  • Geo-morphological rock shelters and cave temples such as Akka Mahadevi Bhilam, Dattatreya Bhilam, Umaa Maheswaram, Kadalivanam, and Palankasari are characteristic of the area
  • Lies along a patch where the Nallavagu and Dindi rivers merge, forming a major tributary and catchment of the Krishna river.

KAWAL TIGER RESERVE, TELANGANA

  • Godavari and Kadam rivers
  • Located at Jannaram mandal of Mancherial District
  • One of the richest teak forests in the state
  • Dry Deciduous Teak Forests mixed with Bamboo
  • River Kadam (a tributary of Godavari)

PARAMBIKULAM TIGER RESERVE, KERALA

  • Palakkad district
  • In the Sungam range of hills between the Anaimalai Hills and Nelliampathy Hills
  • Lion-tailed macaqueNilgiri Tahr, Elephants, Bengal tigers,Indian leopards, Wild boar, Sambar, Travancore Flying Squirrel
  • Home of four different tribes of indigenous peoples including the Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar and Mala Malasar 
  • Teak, neem, sandalwood and rosewood.

PERIYAR TIGER RESERVE, KERALA

  • Sabrimala temple
  • TR, ER
  • Periyar and Pamba rivers
  • Cardamom hills and Pandalam hills
  • Mullaperiyar dam
  • six tribal communities nestled inside the reserve such as Mannans, Paliyans, Malayarayans, Mala Pandarams, Uralis and Ulladans. 
  • Tropical evergreen, semi evergreen, moist deciduous forests and grasslands.
  • Periyar NP located high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the south Western Ghats along the border with Tamil Nadu

SATHYAMANGALAM TIGER RESERVE, TAMIL NADU

  • Erode district
  • Wildlife corridor in Nilgiri between Western Ghat and Eastern Ghat
  • Gateway to Eastern Ghats, is a significant ecosystem and a genetic link between the five other protected areas which it adjoins, including the Billigiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Sigur Plateau, Mudumalai National Park, Bandipur National Park and the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Mostly tropical dry forest, part of the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion
  • Home to indigenous tribal people belonging largely to the Irula tribe (also known as the Urali) and Soliga communities

MUDUMALAI TIGER RESERVE, TAMIL NADU

  • Northwestern side Nilgiri hills (Nilgiri District)
  • Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, Gaur, Indian leopard
  • Shares its boundaries with the states of Karnataka and Kerala
  • Sanctuary is divided into five ranges – Masinagudi, Thepakadu, Mudumalai, Kargudi and Nellakota.
  • Critically endangered Indian white-rumped vulture and long-billed vulture.
  • Habitat-Tropical moist forest. Tropical dry forest and scrub forests 

ANAMALAI TIGER RESERVE, TAMIL NADU

  • Anamalai hills
  • Indira Gandhi WS and NP
  • Coimbatore District and Tiruppur District
  • Also called Topslip
  • The tribes are the Kadars, Malasars , Malaimalasars, Pulaiyars, Muduvars and the Eravallan (Eravalar).

KALAKAD- MUNDATHURAI TIGER RESERVE, TAMIL NADU

  • Southern Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district and Kanyakumari district 
  • Part of Agasthyamalai BR
  • Southernmost TR
  • Habitat use by the grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii) at Mundanthurai plateau
  • Kani Tribal habitations

DANDELI- ANSHI TIGER RESERVE, KARNATAKA

  • Also known as Kali TR
  • Uttara Kannada district
  • Bengal tigers, Black panthers, Indian elephants
  • Kali river
  • Western Ghat
  • Six adjacent protected areas in the states of Goa and Maharashtra

BHADRA TIGER RESERVE, KARNATAKA

  • Bhadra river
  • Bada Budan Giri range
  • Bhadra NP Popularly known as Muthodi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Spread across two districts Shivamogga and Chikmagalur districts.
  • Hebbe Giri is the highest peak in the sanctuary.

NAGARHOLE TIGER RESERVE, KARNATAKA

  • Kodagu and Mysore district
  • Part of Nilgiri BR
  • Tiger, Gaur, Elephant, Indian Leopard, Deer
  • Brahmagiri hills
  • Kabini reservoir separates Bandipore and Nagarhole
  • Kabini river
  • Adjoining Bandipur Tiger Reserve and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Park ranges the foothills of the Western Ghats spreading down the Brahmagiri hills and south towards Kerala state
  • Kabini reservoir separates the two parks (Nagarhole and Bandipur)
  • adjoining Bandipur National Park, Mudumalai National Park and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, it forms the largest protected area in Southern India
  • consists mainly of North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests with teak and rosewood predominating in the southern parts. There is Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests with Pala indigo and thorny wattle 
  • The Jenu Kurubas, primary inhabitants of this forest area, are a tribe in Karnataka state and their traditional practices and rituals are slowly disappearing.
  • Jenu Kuruba and the Koraga as tribal groups in Karnataka

BANDIPORE TIGER RESERVE, KARNATAKA

  • Chamarajanagar district
  • Kabini river in north and Moyar river in south
  • Night traffic ban
  • Lantana lace used to remove Lantana weed
  • Indian elephants, Gaurs, tigers, sloth bears, muggers, Indian rock pythons, Four-horned antelopes, jackals, dholes
  • Many types of biomes, but dry deciduous forest is dominant.
  • Deccan Plateau meets the Western Ghats
  • Bandipur NP flanked by the Kabini river in the north and the Moyar river in the south. The Nugu river runs through the park.  Highest point in the park is on a hill called Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta

BILIGIRI RANGASWAMY TEMPLE (B.R.T) TIGER RESERVE, KARNATAKA

  • Chamarajanagar district
  • Biligiri Rangana Hills
  • Biligiri Rangana Swamy Temple WS
  • Connects Eastern and the Western Ghats
  • White rocky cliff on the top of which is a temple of Lord VISHNU locally known as Rangaswamy.
  • Habitat-Dry deciduous type, and are interspersed with moist deciduous, semi-evergreen, evergreen and shola patches occurring at varying altitudes.

AMANGARH TIGER RESERVE, UTTAR PRADESH

  • It is in Amangarh in Bijnor district in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
  • Originally part of the famed Jim Corbett National Park, and after the state of Uttarakhand was carved out of Uttar Pradesh, Jim Corbett went to Uttarakhand and Amangarh remained in Uttar Pradesh. 

SRIVILLIPUTHUR-MEGAMALAI TIGER RESERVETAMIL NADU

  • The Srivilliputhur Megamalai Tiger Reserve will span the forests of Megamalai wildlife sanctuary and Srivilliputhur grizzled squirrel wildlife sanctuary.
  • Srivilluputhur hosts leopards, Nilgiri tahrsLion tailed macaques, jungle cats, and sambars.
  • 5th in Tamil Nadu
  • Vaigai river

RAMGARH VISHDHARI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, RAJASTHAN- India’52nd Tiger Reserve

  • 4th tiger reserve of Rajasthan after Ranthambore, Sariska and Mukundra tiger reserves.
  • Buffer for the Ranthambore National Park.
  • Comprises of hilly dry deciduous forests on Vindhyan formations.
  • Development of the Ramgarh Vishdhari area allows them to connect the entire belt from Ranthambore to Ramgarh in Bundi and Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve in Kota.

Prelims inFocus

Future Tiger Reserves in India

  • In addition to existing reserves, the in-principal approval has been accorded by the National Tiger Conservation Authority for the creation of four new tiger reserves, namely Ratapani Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh and Sunabeda Tiger Reserve in Odisha. Final approval has been accorded to Kudremukh National Park to be declared as a tiger reserve.
  • The State Governments have been advised to send proposals for declaring the following areas as tiger reserves: Suhelva Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh, Mhadei Sanctuary in Goa, Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary, Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary and Varushanadu Valley in Tamil Nadu, Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary in Arunachal Pradesh and Cauvery-MM Hills in Karnataka.

No Tiger Reserves States / UT in India

  • Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab,Gujarat, Haryana, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Sikkim,Meghalaya

Other facts

  • Madhya Pradesh (526) has the highest tiger population.
  • Karnataka (524) has the second highest tiger population.
  • Uttarakhand (442) has the third highest tiger population.
  • Among the NE states, Assam (190) has the highest tiger population.
  • Corbett Tiger Reserve in Uttarakhand has the highest number of 231 big cats in the country while three reserves in Mizoram, West Bengal and Jharkhand have none
  • Tiger Density Reserves (H-L)-Corbett Tiger Reserve (1)-Nagarhole Tiger Reserve (2)-Bandipur Tiger Reserve (3).
  • 13 tiger range countries — India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam.
  • Petersburg Declaration, MEETR, M-STrIPES
  • Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s tenure Kailash Sankhala was the first director of Project Tiger.
  • As the Bengal Tiger is the national animal of India, this project aims to stem the dwindling population of the big cats and work to increase their numbers.
  • Not to confuse with Pench Tiger Reserve and Pench National Park. Pench Tiger Reserve or Pench National Park is one of the premier tiger reserves of India and the first one to straddle across two states – Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • On the Madhya Pradesh side, the Pench Tiger Reserve encompasses a core area of 411.33 km2 and On the Maharashtra side, the Pench Tiger Reserve has a core habitat area of 257.3 km2. Pench National Park is a national park in India’s Madhya Pradesh state.

Source: Wikipedia

Tiger Reserves in India
Image Credit: Prelim Bits
Image Source: Digital Learn

For Environment Quick Revision Notes: Click here