- Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally.
- The two isomers, endo and exo, are known popularly as I and II.
- Endosulfan sulfate is a product of oxidation containing one extra O atom attached to the S atom.
- Endosulfan became a highly controversial agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, potential for bioaccumulation, and role as an endocrine disruptor. Because of its threats to human health and the environment, a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan was negotiated under the Stockholm Convention in April 2011.
- The ban has taken effect in mid-2012, with certain uses exempted for five additional years.
- More than 80 countries, including the European Union, Australia, New Zealand, several West African nations, the United States, Brazil, and Canada had already banned it or announced phase-outs by the time the Stockholm Convention ban was agreed upon.
- It is still used extensively in India, China, and few other countries.
- It is produced by Makhteshim Agan and several manufacturers in India and China.
Describing the effects of Endosulfan as “devastating”, the Supreme Court directed the State government to release the entire compensation to over 5,000 victims, mostly newborns, and their families in three months.