Facts Corner-Part-184


  • UNESCO Global Geoparks are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development.
  • At present, there are 147 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 41 countries
  • UNESCO Global Geoparks is given this designation for a period of four years after which the functioning and quality of each UNESCO Global Geoparks are thoroughly re-examined during a revalidation process.
  • In 2018 Lonar Lake in Maharashtra and St. Mary’s Island and Malpe beach in coastal Karnataka are listed for UNESCO Global Geopark Network status.


  • Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an aircraft with reflecting telescope, flying into the stratosphere at 38,000-45,000 feet.
  • SOFIA is put above Earth’s infrared-blocking atmosphere, allowing astronomers to study the solar system and beyond in ways that are not possible with ground-based telescopes.
  • The observatory’s mobility allows researchers to observe from almost anywhere in the world and enables studies of transient events that often take place over oceans where there are no telescopes.


  • Plants grow through a process called photosynthesis, in which they use sunlight and a chemical inside their leaves called chlorophyll to convert carbon dioxide (a gas in the air) and water into glucose (a type of sugar) and oxygen.
  • Thus technically plants don’t need soil to grow, this is the basic principle behind hydroponics.
  • Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, which uses mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent instead of soil.
  • The nutrients used in hydroponic systems can come from an array of different sources, these can include byproduct from fish waste, duck manure, or purchased chemical fertilizers.


  • Mosquirix is the world’s first vaccine against a parasitic disease, Malaria.
  • Malaria is caused by the infectious Plasmodium female Anopheles mosquitoes deposit parasite sporozoites into the skin of a human host.
  • Each year there are 430,000 malaria-related deaths worldwide according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Mosquirix vaccine has been recommended by WHO for pilot introduction in selected areas of 3 African countries- Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.
  • African Nation, Malawi will be undertaking large scale pilot tests for this world’s most advanced experimental malaria vaccine in a bid to prevent the disease.

Garia Festival

  • Garia Puja is an important festival for the Tripuri tribal community of the state.
  • The Garia dance is very popular among the Tripuris and the Reangs during the festival.
  • Symbolic of the worship of deities as well as of the socio-economic activities of the households, these dances represent hunting, fishing, food-gathering and various other activities.

Arab League

  • Arab league is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
  • The Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria are the founding members of the league.
  • Since 2011, Syria’s participation has been suspended after the Syrian Civil War.

Shigellosis Vaccine

  • Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella.
  • Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhoea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria.
  • India has indigenously developed the first-ever vaccine for treatment for Shigellosis.
  • It is a dead vaccine, that is, it a dead germ of the bacteria causing disease would be introduced in the body so that the immune system develops immunity against it.
  • The disease, at present, is largely treated through antibiotics, but considering the fact that antibiotic resistance has become a major concern, the vaccine was the need of the hour.

Dark Matter

  • Around 68 per cent is filled with is dark energy which remains unknown and undetected.
  • The rate of expansion of the Universe cannot be explained with the existence of ordinary matter alone.
  • Only by taking dark matter and dark energy into account can this rate be explained.
  • Dark matter could be made up of yet unfound particles known as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP).
  • Such particles will display rare radioactive reactions such as neutrino-less double beta decay, one example of which is a neutrino-less double electron capture.
  • The recent observation of a neutrino double electron capture is the first step towards the neutrino-less version of the reaction.

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