Facts Corner-Part-188


  • China’s Yutu-2 rover has discovered lunar dirt that researchers think originated deep underground in the Moon’s mantle.
  • Chang’e-4 is the Chinese lunar exploration Mission which made the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon.
  • The probe touched down at a targeted area in the Von Karman Crater near the moon’s South Pole-Aitken basin.
  • This is the first time any craft has landed on the unexplored and rugged far side of the moon.
  • The probe was launched by a Long March-3B carrier rocket from the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre in Sichuan Province.
  • Chang’e-4 includes two main parts
  1. Main lander
  2. Rover (YUTU 2)
  • China launched a relay satellite, named Queqiao, to set up a communication link between the Earth and Chang’e-4 lunar probe.
  • Chang’e 4 is the fourth lunar probe launched by China since the country’s lunar programme was opened in 2004.
  • Chang’e-4 mission has four scientific payloads developed by scientists from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Saudi Arabia.
  • The first Chang’e spacecraft was launched in 2007 to verify China’s lunar probe technology, obtain lunar images and perform scientific surveys.
  • The Chang’e 2 followed in 2010 to carry out high-definition imaging of the moon and investigate landing conditions for the Chang’e 3.
  • Chang’e 3 landed on the moon in 2013.
  • Chang’e 3 released the first Chinese lunar rover, Yutu, on the moon.
  • Chang’e 4 released the lunar rover, Yutu 2, on the moon

Monkeypox Virus

  • Singapore has recently reported its first case of the rare monkeypox virus.
  • Monkeypox, a virus like the human smallpox which was eradicated in 1980.
  • It does not spread easily from person to person but can in rare cases be fatal.
  • Transmission is usually via close contact with infected animals such as rodents and monkeys and is limited between people.
  • This viral infection has only been documented outside of Africa in 3 countries – US, UK and Israel.
  • It typically lasts for 2 to 4 weeks, starting as a fever and headache and progressing through to small bumps called pustules that spread over the body.


  • It is a high-speed expendable aerial target (HEAT).
  • The configuration of ‘Abhyas’ is designed on an in-line small gas turbine engine.
  • It uses indigenously developed micro-electro-mechanical systems-based system for navigation and
  • ‘Abhyas’ is designed for autonomous flying with the help of an autopilot.
  • It offers a realistic threat scenario for practice of weapon systems.
  • Luneburg lens in the nose cone improves the radar cross-section of the target for weapons practice.
  • It also has an acoustic miss distance indicator (AMDI) to indicate the missed distance.
  • The GPS enabled Abhyas has an endurance of 25-30 minutes and is fitted with sensors.
  • Abhyas has augmentation system for Radar Cross Section (RCS), visual and IR for weapon prative and can also play the role of a jammer and decoy.


  • The ADMM-Plus is a platform for ASEAN and its eight Dialogue Partners to strengthen security and defence cooperation for peace, stability, and development in the region.
  • The 2ndADMM in Singapore in 2007 adopted the Concept Paper to establish the ADMM-Plus.
  • The Inaugural ADMM-Plus was convened in Ha Noi, Viet Nam, on 12 October 2010.
  • The Defence Ministers agreed on five areas of practical operation
  1. Maritime security
  2. Counter-terrorism
  3. Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief
  4. Oeacekeeping operations
  5. Military medicine

Collegium System

  • It is the system of appointment and transfer of judgesthat has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court.
  • It is not by an Act of Parliamentor by a provision of the Constitution.
  • The Supreme Court collegium is headed by the Chief Justice of Indiaand comprises four other seniormost judges of the court.
  • The collegium system has its genesis in a series of judgments called “Judges Cases”.
  • The collegium came into being through interpretations of pertinent constitutional provisions by the Supreme Court in the Judges Cases.
  • Judges of the higher judiciary are appointed only through the collegium system and the government has a role only after names have been decided by the collegium.
  • The government’s role is limited to getting an inquiry conducted by the Intelligence Bureau (IB) if a lawyer is to be elevated as a judge in a High Court or the Supreme Court.
  • It can also raise objections and seek clarifications regarding the collegium’s choices, but if the collegium reiterates the same names, the government is bound, under Constitution Bench judgments, to appoint them as judges.
  • A High Court collegium is led by its Chief Justice and four other seniormost judges of that court.
  • Names recommended for appointment by a High Court collegium reaches the government only after approval by the CJI and the Supreme Court collegium.


  • It is a human atlas initiative launched by the Department of Biotechnology.
  • It aims at creating a database network of all tissues in the human body from the available scientific literature.
  • Better biological insights through physiological and molecular mapping, develop disease models and have a wholistic analysis and finally drug discovery.
  • The project encouraged colleges and universities to register as teams and work in this project.
  • The project can be signed up by students from science background who are in their final year graduation and above.
  • Initially, the project will focus on curating information revolving skin tissues.

Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI)

  • India has found problems with Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)’s STRI index  which ranks countries based on their services trade policies, indicating the outcomes are biased and counter-intuitive.
  • The OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) is a unique, evidence-based tool that provides information on regulations affecting trade in services.
  • It measures it in 22 sectors across all OECD member countries and Brazil, the People’s Republic of China, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Russian Federation, and South Africa.
  • These countries and sectors represent over 80% of global trade in services.
  • It is computed by OECD.
  • It was launched in 2014.
  • The STRI toolkit can support policymakers to
  • Scope out reform options
  • Benchmark them relative to global best practice
  • Assess their likely effects
  • Shed light on the requirements that traders must comply with when entering foreign markets


  • It is NASA’s new Moon landing program named after Apollo’s sister.
  • Apollo, whose name was used by NASA for the series of spacecraft that first landed Americans on the moon in 1969.

Square Kilometre Array

  • SKA project is an international effort to build the world’s largest radio telescope, with eventually over a square kilometre (one million square metres) of collecting area.
  • It will use 1000s of dishes and up to a million low-frequency antennas that will enable astronomers to monitor the sky in unprecedented detail and survey the entire sky much faster than any system currently in existence.
  • South Africa’s Karoo region and Western Australia’s Murchison Shire were chosen as co-hosting locations for this project.
  • Karoo will host the core of the high and mid frequency dishes and Murchison will host the low-frequency antennas.

Long Period Average

  • LPA is the average rainfall received by the country as a whole during the south-west monsoon, for a 50-year period.
  • The current LPA is 89 cm, based on the average rainfall over years 1951 and 2000.
  • This acts as a benchmark against which the rainfall in any monsoon season is measured.
  • Deficient rainfall – actual rainfall falls below 90 per cent of LPA.
  • ‘Below normal’ – actual rainfall received falls between 90 and 96 per cent of LPA.
  • ‘Normal’ – actual rainfall received falls between 96 and 104 per cent of LPA.
  • ‘Above Normal’ – actual rainfall received falls between 104 and 110 per cent of LPA.
  • Excess rainfall – actual rainfall is greater than 110 per cent of LPA.

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)

  • India has been unanimously chosen as co-chair of the Consultative Group (CG) of Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) for the fiscal year 2020.
  • The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is a global partnership that helps developing countries better understand and reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change.
  • GFDRR is a grant-funding mechanism that supports disaster risk management projects worldwide.
  • It is managed by the World Bank.
  • GFDRR contributes to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction by helping countries to integrate disaster risk management and climate change adaptation into development strategies and investment programs and recover from disasters quickly and effectively.
  • Working on the ground with over 400 local, national, regional, and international partners, GFDRR provides knowledge, funding, and technical assistance.

Important Glaciers in India

  • Batura Glacier-J & K – Karakoram range
  • Khurdopin Glacier –J & K – Karakoram range
  • Hispar Glacier –J & K – Karakoram range
  • Biafo Glacier –J & K – Karakoram range
  • Baltoro Glacier –J & K – Karakoram range
  • Chogolungma glacier –J & K  – Karakoram range
  • Diamir Glacier- J & K  – Karakoram range
  • Siachin Glacier –LOC between India & POK
  • Gangotri Glacier –Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand
  • Milam Glacier –located in Trishul peak
  • Pindari glacier –Nanda devi ,Uttarakhand
  • Zemu Glacier-Located on Kanchenjunga peak

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