INDIA AND CLIMATE CHANGE
INDIA’S POSITION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
India’s per capita emission levels will never exceed that of the per capita emission
levels of developed countries-PM india
India cannot and will not take on emission reduction targets
India will continue to be a low-carbon economy (World Bank study).
India’s primary focus is on”adaptation”, with specific focus for “mitigation
India has already unveiled a comprehensive National Action Plan on Climate Change
Only those Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) can be subject to
international monitoring, reporting and verification that are enabled and supported by
international finance and technology transfer
India wants a comprehensive approach to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation &
Forest Degradation (REDD) and advocates REDD+ that includes conservation,
afforestation and sustainable management of forests
India advocates collaborative research in future low-carbon technology and access to
intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) as global public goods.
CURRENT CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN INDIA
India’s CO2 emissions per capita are well below the world’s average.(1.02 metric ton)
OBSERVED CLIMATE AND WEATHER CHANGES IN INDIA
India’s National Communication (NATCOM) to UNFCCC has consolidated some of the
observed changes in climate parameters in India.
1. Surface Temperature
At the national level, increase of 0.4° C has been observed in surface air temperatures
overmthe past century.
A warming trend has been observed along the west coast, in central India, the interior
peninsula, and north-eastern India.
cooling trends have been observed in north-west India and parts of south India.
While the observed monsoon rainfall at the all- India level does not ,show any
significant trend,regional monsoon variations have been recorded
A trend of increasing monsoon seasonal rainfall has been found along the west coast,
northern Andhra Pradesh, and north-western India (+10% to +12% of the normal over the
last 100 years)
while a trend of decreasing monsoon seasonal rainfall has been observed over eastern
Madhya Pradesh, north-eastern India, and some parts of Gujarat and Kerala (-6% to –8%
of the normal over the last 100 years).
3. Extreme Weather Events
the states of West Bengal and Gujarat have reported increasing trends, a decline has
been observed in Orissa
4. Rise in Sea Level
Sea level rise was between 1.06-1.75 mm per year. These rates are consistent with 1-2 mm per
year global sea level rise estimates of IPCC.
5. Impacts on Himalayan Glaciers–
recession of someglaciers, has occurred in some Himalayan regions in recent years, the
trend is not consistent across the entire mountain chain.
It is accordingly, too early to establish long-term trends, or their causation, in respect
of which there are several hypotheses.
CURRENT ACTIONS FOR ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION
Current Indian government expenditure on adaptation to climate variability,
exceeds 2.6% of the GDP.
Two risk-financing programmes support adaptation to climate impacts.
The Crop Insurance Scheme– supports the insurance of farmers against
climate risks, and
the Credit Support Mechanism– facilitates the extension of credit to farmers,
especially for crop failure due to climate variability.
India has a strong and rapidly growing afforestation programme.
Forest Conservation Act of 1980, which aimed at stopping the clearing and degradation of
forests through a strict, centralized control of the rights to use forest land and mandatory
requirements of compensatory afforestation in case of any diversion of forest land for
any non-forestry purpose.
an aggressive afforestation and sustainable forest management programme, resulted
in annual reforestation of 1.78 mha during 1985-1997, and is currently 1.1 mha annually.
The National Water Policy (2002) stresses that non-conventional methods for
utilization of water, including inter-basin transfers, artificial recharge of groundwater,
and desalination of brackish or sea water, as well as traditional water conservation practices
like rainwater harvesting, including roof-top rainwater harvesting, should be practised to
increase the utilizable water resources.
4. COASTAL REGIONS
In coastal regions, restrictions have been imposed in the area between
200m and 500m of the Htl (high tide line)
special restrictions have been imposed in the area up to 200m to protect the
sensitive coastal ecosystems and prevent their exploitation.
The prime objective present of health programmes is the surveillance and
control of vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis,
Filaria and Dengue.
Programmes also provide for emergency medical relief in the case of natural
calamities, and to train and develop human resources for these tasks.
6. DISASTER MANAGEMENT
The National Disaster Management programme provides grants-in-aid to
victims of weather related disasters, and manages disaster relief operations.
It also supports proactive disaster prevention programmes, including
dissemination of information and training of disaster-management staff.
India’s NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE
The National Action Plan hinges on the development and use of new
The implementation of the Plan would be through appropriate institutional
mechanisms suited for effective delivery of each individual Mission’s
objectives and include public private partnerships and civil society action.
Eight National Missions
1. NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION
The National Solar Mission is a major initiative of the Government of India and State
Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy
To establish India as a global leader in solar energy
The Mission will adopt a 3-phase approach
remaining period of the 11th Plan and first year of the 12th Plan (up to 2012-13) as
the remaining 4 years of the 12th Plan (2013-17) as Phase 2
the 13th Plan (2017-22) as Phase 3.
there will be an evaluation of progress, review of capacity and targets for subsequent
Mission targets are:
1. To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by
2. To ramp up capacity of grid-connected solar power generation to 1000 MW within three
years —by 2013; an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through the mandatory use of the renewable
purchase obligation by utilities backed with a preferential tariff.
3. To create favorable conditions for solar manufacturing capability, particularly solar
thermal for indigenous production and market leadership.
4. To promote programmes for off grid applications, reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by
5. To achieve 15 million sq. meters solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million by 2022.
6. To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022.
2. THE NATIONAL MISSION FOR ENHANCED ENERGY EFFICIENCY (NMEEE):-
To strengthen the market for energy efficiency by creating conducive regulatory and
Market-based approaches to unlock energy efficiency opportunities.
Four New Initiatives to Enhance Energy Efficiency:
a) Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT)
b) Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency
c) Energy Efficiency Financing Platform (EEP)
d) Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development (FEEED)
3. NATIONAL MISSION ON SUSTAINABLE HABITAT
to promote sustainability of habitats through improvements in energy efficiency in
buildings, urban planning, improved management of solid and liquid waste, modal shift
towards public transport and conservation through appropriate changes, in legal and
It also seeks to improve ability of habitats to adapt to climate change by improving
resilience of infrastructure, community based disaster management and
measures for improving advance warning systems for extreme weather events.
4. NATIONAL WATERMISSION (NWM) MISSION OBJECTIVES
Ensuring integrated water resource management for conservation of water,
minimization of wastage and equitable distribution both across and within states.
Developing a framework for optimum water use through increase in water use
efficiency by 20% through regulatory mechanisms with differential entitlements and
pricing, taking the National Water Policy (NWP) into consideration.
5. NATIONAL MISSION FOR SUSTAINING THE HIMALAYAN ECOSYSTEM (NMSHE)
The most crucial and primary objective of the mission is to develop a sustainable
National capacity to continuously assess the health status of the Himalayan Ecosystem and
enable policy bodies in their policy-formulation functions and assist States in the Indian
Himalayan Region with their implementation of actions selected for sustainable
6. NATIONAL MISSION FOR A GREEN INDIA
Increased forest/tree cover on 5 million hectares (ha) of forest/non- forest -lands and
improved quality of forest cover on another 5 million ha of non-forest/forest lands’ (a total
of 10 million ha)
Improved ecosystem services including biodiversity, hydrological services, and carbon sequestration
from the 10 million ha of forest/ non-forest lands mentioned above
7. NATIONAL MISSION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE (NMSA)
The NMSA has identified 10 key dimensions for adaptation and mitigation:
1. Improved Crop Seeds, Livestock and Fish Culture
2. Water Efficiency
3. Pest Management
4. Improved Farm Practices
5. Nutrient Management
6. Agricultural Insurance
7. Credit Support
9. Access to Information
10. Livelihood Diversification
The National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC)
Formation of knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions
engaged in research and development relating to climate science and
facilitating data sharing and exchange through a suitable policy framework
and institutional support
Establishment of global technology watch groups with institutional capacities
to carry out research on risk minimised technology selection for developmental
Development of national capacity for modeling the regional impact of climate
Establishing research networks and encouraging research in the areas of climate
change impacts on important socio-economic sectors
Building alliances and partnerships through global collaboration in research & technology
8.National Bio-Energy Mission
to boost power generation from biomass, a renewable energy source
abundantly available in India
launched during the 12th Five-Year Plan, will offer a policy and regulatory environment to
facilitate large-scale capital investments in biomass-fired power stations.
It will also encourage development of rural enterprises.
It will also propose a GIS-based National Biomass Resource Atlas to map potential
biomass regions in the country
adopt a two phase approach, spanning the 12th Plan in Phase and the 13th Plan
in Phase 2
INDIAN NETWORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT
(INCCA) was launched in October 2009 by the Ministry of Environment and
Forests (MoEF) in an effort to promote domestic research on climate change, and build
on the country’s climate change expertise.
Consists of over 120 institutions and over 250 scientist country wide is aimed at
bringing in more science-based policy-making, based on measurement ,
monitoring and modelling.
Reports prepared by the INCCA will form a part of India’s National Communication (Nat
Com) to the United. Nations framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
INCCA — First Assessment – INCCA prepared the Country’s greenhouse gas
(GHG) emission data “India: Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2007” in 2010 . which said
the country’s emissions grew by 58 per cent during 1994 to 2007
INCCA – Second Assessment ‘Climate Change and India: A 4×4 Assessment’
(4 regions and 4 sector)
A 4×4 Assessment’ addresses the impact of climate change in 2030s to the natural
resources and livelihoods of the people in the four climate sensitive regions of Himalayan
region, North- East region, the Western Ghats and the Coastal plains for the 4 key
sectors of Agriculture, Water, Health and Natural Ecosystems and Biodiversity
using a regional climate model (PRECIS).
Up to 50% reduction in maize yields
4-35% reduction in rice yields (with someexceptions)
Rise in coconut yields (with some exceptions);
reduced apple production
Forests and natural ecosystems Increased net primary productivity
NATIONAL COMMUNICATION (NATCOM)–
National Communication (NATCOM) to the UNFCCC has been initiated in
2002 funded by the Global Environment Facility under its enabling activities
programme through the United Nations Development Programme, New Delhi.
To communicate the following information to the Secretariat of the Conference of
A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removal by
sink of all GHGs not controlled by the Montreal protocol (what is montreal protocol)
A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the
The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is implementing and
executing agency of the project
base year 1994
Creation of reliable and comprehensive database for all the outputs produced
through the establishment of a Data Centre’ (DC)
The areas of energy, industrial processes, agriculture land use and land use change and
forestry (LULUCF) and waste.
The gases to be inventoried include carbon dioxide methane, nitrous oxide, hydro
fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbon and sulphur hexafluoride released from various
anthropogenic sources of the base year 1994.
Strengthening of the ecology security is one of the goal of the MGNREGA.
MGNREGA is designed to strengthen the ongoing effort for water harvesting,
watershed management, and soil health care and enhancement.
INDIA’S POLICY STRUCTURE RELEVANT TO GHG MITIGATION
The Integrated Energy Policy was adopted in 2006– Promotion of energy
efficiency in all sectors, Emphasis on mass transport, Emphasis on renewables
including biofuels plantations
Accelerated development of nuclear and hydropower for clean energy
Focused R&D on several clean energy related technology
The Rural Electrification Policy, 2006
It promotes renewable energy technology where grid connectivity is not
possible or cost-effective.
ENERGY CONSERVATION BUILDING CODE
was launched in May, 2007, which addresses the design of new, large commercial
buildings to optimize the buildings’ energy demand based on their location in
different climatic zones
Compliance with ECBC norms is voluntary at present but is expected to soon become
Buildings are one of the major pollutants that affect urban air quality and contribute
to climate change
The aim of a green building design is to: 1) Minimize the demand on non-renewable
resources and maximize the utilization efficiency of these resources when in use, and
Maximize reuse and recycling of available resources 2) Utilization of renewable
It costs a little more to design and construct a green building. However, it costs
less to operate a greenbuilding
Building system designed in a way to efficiently use HVAC (heating ventilation
and air conditioning), lighting, electrical, and water heating.
Integration of renewable energy sources to generate energy onsite.
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)
GRIHA is a Sanskrit word meaning – ‘Abode’.
GRIHA has been conceived by TERI and developed jointly with the Ministry of
New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.
The green building rating system devised by TERI and the MNRE is a voluntary
to help design green buildings and, in turn, help evaluate the ‘greenness’ of the
GRIHA is a rating tool that helps people assess the performance of their building
against certain nationally acceptable benchmarks and is suitable for all kinds of
buildings in different climatic zones of the country
building is assessed based on its predicted performance over its entire life cyde —
inception through operation.
The stages of the life cycle that have been identified for evaluation are:-
Pre-construction stage, Building operation and maintenance stage
GRIHA rating system consists of 34 criteria categorized under 4 categories
1. Site Selection and Site Planning,
2. Conservation and efficient utilization of resources,
3. Building operation and maintenance, and
4. Innovation points:
It means that a project intending to meet the criterion would qualify for the
Different levels of certification (one star to five stars) are awarded based on the
number of points earned.
The minimum points required for certification is 50.
ENERGY AUDITS OF LARGE INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS
In March 2007 the conduct of energy audits was made mandatory in large energyconsuming units in nine industrial sectors.
These units, notified as “designated consumers” are also required to employ
“certified energy managers”, and report energy consumption and energy conservation
The National Urban Transport Policy emphasizes extensive public transport facilities
and non-motorized modes over personal vehicles.
The expansion of the Metro Rail Transportation System in Delhi and other cities
(Chennai, Bangalore, Jaipur, etc)
CLEAN AIR INITIATIVES
(i) introduction of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Delhi and other cities;
(ii) Retiring old, polluting vehicles; and
(iii) Strengthening of mass transportation.
Some state governments provide subsidies for purchase and use of electric vehicles.
For thermal power plant, the installation of electrostatic precipitators is mandatory.
Promotion OF ENERGY SAVING DEVICES-
The bureau of Energy efficiency has introduced “The BaChat Lamp Yojana”,
a program under which households may exchange incandescent lamps for CFLs
(compact fluorescent lamps) using clean development mechanism (CDM)
Credits to equate purchase price.
PROMOTION OF BIOFUELS
The Biodiesel Purchase Policy mandates biodiesel procurement by the
A mandate on Ethanol Blending of Gasoline requires 5% blending of ethanol with
gasoline from 1st January, 2003, in 9 States and 4 Union Territories.
INDIAN SOLAR LOAN PROGRAMME
In April 2003, the United Nations Environment Programme (“UNEP”) initiated a,
three-year Programme, credit facility in Southern India to help rural households
finance the purchase of Solar Home Systems.
Canara Bank and Syndicate bank, along with their eight associate Regional Rural
Banks, partnered with LTNEP
assistance with technical issues, vendor qualification and other activities to develop the
institutional capacity for this type of finance.
NATIONAL INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE (NICRA)
The ICAR has launched National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)
during 2010-11 with an outlay of Rs.350 crores for the XI Plan.
This initiative will primarily enhance the resilience of Indian Agriculture
covering crops, livestock and fisheries
The project is comprised of four components.
Strategic research on adaptation and mitigation
Technology demonstration on farmers’ fields to cope with current
Sponsored and competitive research grants to fill critical research gaps
Capacity building of different stake holders
the project is focusing on crops like wheat, rice, maize, pigeonpea, groundnut, tomato,
mango and banana;
cattle, buffalo and small ruminants among livestock and both marine and
freshwater fish species of economic importance
The major research themes are:
• Vulnerability assessment of major production zones
• Linking weather based agro-advisories to contingency planning
• Assessing the impacts and evolving varieties tolerant to key climatic stresses
(drought, heat, frost, flooding, etc)
Evolving adaptation and mitigation strategies
Continuous monitoring of greenhouse gases
Studying changes in pest dynamics
Adaptation strategies in livestock
Harnessing the beneficial effects of temperature in inland and marine
Seven major research institutes of the ICAR will work in unison to evolve coping
technologies with Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA),
Hyderabad as the lead centre.
The BSE-GREENEX Index is a veritable first step in creating a credible market based
response mechanism in India, whereby both businesses and investors can rely upon
purely quantitative and objective performance based signals, to assess “carbon
gTrade Carbon Ex Ratings Services Private Limited (gTrade) is a company based in
India, which has co-developed the BSE-GREENV Index in close association with the
includes the top 20 companies which are good in terms of Carbon Emissions, FreeFloat Market Capitalization, and Turnover.
Cap Weighted Free-Float Market Capitalization weighted Index comprising from the
list of BSE-100 Index.
lst October, 2008 (Base Date) with the base index value of 1000.
rebalanced on a bia-nnual basis i.e. end of March and September quarters.
The September quarter review will be based on the fresh set of carbon emission
the March quarter review will be based on the existing carbon emission numbers
but latest financial data.
CLIMATE CHANGE ORGANIZATIONS
UN Summit Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de
Janerio in June 1992 adopted, by consensus, the first multilateral legal instrument
on Climate Change, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change or the
There are now 195 Parties to the Convention.
All subsequent multilateral negotiations on different aspects of climate change,
including both adaptation and mitigation, are being held based on the principles and
objectives set out by the UNFCCC
KYOTO PROTOCOL: COP-3.
to strengthen the global response to climate change.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto Japan,, on 11 December 1997. Due to a
complex ratification process, it entered into force on ’16 February 2005.
Kyoto Protocol is what “operationalizes” the Convention.
It commits industrialized countries to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions based on the principles
of the Convention.
The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the
Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol
commits them to do so.
sets binding emission reduction targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European
community in its first commitment period.
It only binds developed countries
KP places a heavier burden on developed nations under its central principle: that of
“common but differentiated responsibility”
these targets add up to an average five per cent emissions reduction compared to 1990
levels over the five-year period 2008 to 2012
KP is made up of:
Reporting and verification procedures;
Flexible market-based mechanisms, which in turn have their own governance
A compliance system.
So, two things make KP tick
1. Emissions Reduction Commitments
The first was binding emissions reduction commitments for developed country
parties. This meant the space to pollute was limited.
carbon dioxide, became a new commodity.KP now began to internalize what was
now recognized as an un priced externality.
2. Flexible Market Mechanisms
• Joint Implementation (JI)
• The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
• Emission Trading
The objectives of Kyoto mechanisms:
Stimulate sustainable development through technology transfer and investment
Help countries with Kyoto commitments to meet their targets by reducing emissions or
removing carbon from the atmosphere in other countries in a cost-effective way
Encourage the private sector and developing countries to contribute to
emission reduction efforts
allows a country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment under
the Kyoto Protocol to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emissionreduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target.
Projects starting as from the year 2000 may be eligible as JI projects, ERU issued from 2008
Clean Development mechanism:
Allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment
under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in
It is the first global, environmental investment and credit scheme of its kind,
Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to
one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.
A CDM project activity might involve, for example, a rural electrification project using
solar Panels or the installation of more energy-efficient boilers.
The mechanism stimulates sustainable development and emission reductions, while
giving industrialized countries some flexibility in how they meet their emission
reduction or limitation targets.
Most of the CDM projects were implemented in China and India as climate in these
countries is favorable for implementing projects for almost all the spheres
the name given to the exchange of emission permits. This exchange may take place
within the economy or may take the form of international transaction.
Two types of Carbon trading:
1. Emission trading- Emission permit is known alternatively as carbon credit
2. Offset trading-Another variant of carbon credit is to be earned by a country by
investing some amount of money in such projects, known as carbon projects, which will
emit lesser amount of green-house gas in the atmosphere.
Non-Compliance of Kyoto And Penalties
If a country does not meet the requirements for measurements and reporting said
country looses the privilege of gaining credit through joint implementation
If a country goes above its emissions cap, and does not try to make up the
difference through any of the mechanisms available, then said country must
make up the difference plus an additional thirty percent during the next period.
The country could also be banned from participating in the ‘cap and trade’
Bali Meet was the meeting of 190 countries that are party.to a UN treaty on climate
change held in December 2007.
to discuss what happens after 2012-what are countries expected to do after the first
phase of Kyoto ends in 2012.
Bali Road Map includes
The Bali Action Plan (BAP)
The Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the
Kyoto Protocol negotiations and their 2009 deadlinre,
Launch of the Adaptation Fund,
Decisions on technology transfer and
On reducing emissions from deforestation.
Bali Action Plan (BAP)
A shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal
for emission reductions.
Enhanced national/international action on mitigation of climate change.
Enhanced action on adaptation.
Enhanced action on technology development and transfer to support action on
mitigation and adaptation.
Enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment to support
action on mitigation and adaptation and technology cooperation
COP 15 COPENHAGEN SUMMIT
The summit concluded with the CoP taking a note of Copenhagen Accord
( a five nation accord- BASIC and US).
The Copenhagen Accord is a non-binding agreement.
Developed countries (Annex-I) agree to set targets for reductions in their
greenhouse gas emissions by 2020.
Developing countries agree to pursue nationally appropriate mitigation strategies
to slow the growth of their emissions, but are not committed to reducing their
developed countries would raise funds of $30 billion from 2010-2012 of new and
Agrees a “goal” for the world to raise $100 billion per year by 2020. New
multilateral funding for adaptation will be delivered, with a governance
COP 16 CANCUN SUMMIT
all Parties to the Convention (including the developed and developing countries)
have agreed to report their voluntary mitigation goals for implementation
Decisions were taken at Cancun to set up a Green Climate Fund, a Technology
Mechanism, and an Adaptation Committee at global level to support developing
country actions for adaptation and mitigation
process to design a ‘Green Climate Fund’
Mechanism of COP 16
1. Technology mechanism-in 16th session of the COP in Cancun 2010. Facilitate the
implementation of enhanced action-on technology development and transfer in
Order to support action on mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
2. Green climate fund– will support projects, programme, policies and other activities in
developing country Parties. The Fund will be governed by the GCF Board.
The World Bank was invited by to serve as the interim trusteed
3. The Adaptation Fund was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and
programmes in developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly
vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
financed from the share of proceeds on the clean development mechanism
4. Adaptation committee-
Providing technical support and guidance to the Parties
Sharing of relevant information, knowledge, experience and good practices
Promoting synergy and strengthening engagement with national, regional
and international organizations, centers and networks.
Considering information communicated by Parties on their monitoring and
review of adaptation actions, support provided and received
COP 17 DURBAN SUMMIT
India had gone to Durban with two major demands — that the principle of
equity remain intact in any new climate regime and that this new global deal be
launched after 2020.
• New deal to be finalized by 2015 and launched by 2020
• Second phase of Kyoto Protocol secured
• Green Climate Fund launched, though empty as yet Green tech development
mechanism put in place
• Equity finds place back in future climate talks
• Adaptation mechanism
• Transparency mechanism
India regains leadership of developing world, Wins on all its important nonnegotiable Common but differentiated responsibility principle retained.
India Secures 10 years of economic growth without carbon containment Intellectual
Property Rights and technology not as well anchored in new deal Loopholes for developed
world not fully blocked
Agriculture brought in by developed nations under climate change
REDD & REDD+
REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is the global
endeavor to create an incentive for developing countries to protect, better manage
and save ,their forest resources, thus contributing to the global fight against climate
REDD+ goes beyond merely., Checking deforestation and forest degradation, and
includes incentives for positive elements of conservation, sustainable management of
forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
REDD+ conceptualizes flow of positive incentives’ for demonstrated reduction in
deforestation or for enhancing quality and expanse of forest cover.
India has made a submission to UNFCCC on “REDD, Sustainable Management of
Forest(SMF) and Afforestation and Reforestation, (A&R)” in December 2008
THE GEF (Global Environment Facility)
to function under the guidance of the UNFCCC COP and be accountable to the COP
established in 1991 by the World Bank in consultation with the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), to provide funding to protect the global environment
The GEF now has six focal areas:
1. biological diversity;
2. climate change;
3. international waters;
4. land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation;
5. ozone layer depletion; and
6. persistent organic pollutants.
While agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate change, it is also a major cause,
directly accounting for about 14 percent of greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC 2007).
This is called the ‘triple win’: interventions that Would increase yields (poverty
reduction and food Security) , make yields more resilient in the face extremes
(adaptation), and make the farm a solution to the climate change problem rather than
part of the problem (mitigation).
These triple wins are likely to require a package of interventions and be countryand locality specific in their application. This method of practicing agriculture
is called ‘Climate Smart Agriculture’
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)
established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide the governments of the
world with a clear scientific view of what is happening to the world’s climate.
headquarters in Geneva.
Currently 195 countries are members of the IPCC
The IPCC is a scientific body. It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific,
technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the
understanding of climate change
It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or
Key AR5 cross-cutting themes will be:
Water and the Earth System: Change, Impacts and Responses;
Carbon Cycle including Ocean Acidification;
Ice Sheets and Sea-Level Rise;
Mitigation, Adaptation and Sustainable Development; and
Article 2 of the UNFCCC (see UNFCCC for definition).
NATIONAL GREEN HOUSE GAS INVENTORIES PROGRAMME (NGGIP)
The IPCC established the NGGIP,
TO provide methods for estimating-national inventories of greenhouse gas
emissions to, and removals from, the atmosphere.
The ‘Green Economy’ can be considered synonymous to a
‘sustainable’ economy. However, the Green Economy concept often carries a more distinctive meaning
Green economy focuses specifically on the fundamental changes that are
required to ensure that economic systems are made more sustainable.
Green Economy focuses on the ways to overcome the deeply rooted causes of
unsustainable economic development.
A Green Economy is one whose growth in income and employment is driven by
public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution,
enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and
Three priorities in transition of economy to green economy are
• decarbonizes the economy;
• commit the environmental community to justice and equity; and
• conserve the biosphere.
CONSTITUTIONAL BODIES :
ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA
Election Commission of India is an important body in the World’s Largest Democracy
a permanent Constitutional Body.
Article 324 of the Constitution establishes the Election Commission of India.
established on 25th January 1950.
supervises the conduct of elections to Parliament and Legislature of every State and elections to the
offices of President and Vice-President of India.
consists of Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Previously, there were no
Appointment of Election Commissioners
The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners.
tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
status, salary and perks of election commissioners are equivalent to Judges of the Supreme Court of
The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through impeachment by
Other members can be removed by the President in consultation with the Chief Election Commissioner
The President may appoint Regional Election Commissioners in consultation with the CEC before
elections to the Parliament or Assemblies. The regional election commissioners resign after the
The Chief Election Commissioner cannot hold any office of profit after retirement.
The Chief Election Commissioner cannot be reappointed to the post
Powers of the Election Commission
The EC enjoys complete autonomy and is insulated from any interference from the Executive
It also functions as a quasi-judiciary body regarding matters related to elections and electoral disputes
Its recommendations are binding on the President of India
However, its decisions are subject to judicial review by High Courts and the Supreme Court acting on
During the election process, the entire Central and state government machinery (including paramilitary
and police forces) is deemed to be on deputation to the Commission
The Commission takes effective control of government personnel, movable and immovable property
for successful conduct of elections
Functions of the Election Commission
Demarcation of constituencies
Preparation of electoral rolls
Issue notification of election dates and schedules
Establish and enforce code of conduct
Scrutiny of nomination papers of candidates
Scrutiny of election expenses
Allot symbols and accord recognition to political parties
Render advice to the President and Governors regarding disqualification of MPs and MLAs
Allot schedules for broadcast and telecast of party campaigns
Grant exemptions to persons from disqualifications imposed by judicial decisions
UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
the central recruiting agency in India
independent constitutional body in the sense that it has been directly created by the Constitution
Articles 315 to 323 in Part XIV of the Constitution contain elaborate provisions regarding the
composition, appointment and removal of members along with the independence, powers and
functions of the UPSC
Chairman and Members
The Chairman and other members of a Public Service Commission are appointed, in the case of the
Union Commission or a Joint Commission, by the President, and in the case of a State Commission,
by the Governor of the State:
As nearly as one-half of the members of every Public Service Commission shall be persons who
have held office for at least ten year either under the Government of India or under the Government
of a State
The chairman and members of the Commission hold office for a term of six years or until they
attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
Chairman or any other member of a Public Service Commission shall only be removed from his office
by order of the President on the ground of misbehaviour after the Supreme Court on reference being
made to it by the President had held an inquiry and recommended removal.
removed from office by the president only in the manner and on the grounds mentioned in the
enjoy security of tenure
(a) The entire expenses including the salaries, allowances and pensions of the chairman and
members of the UPSC are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India. Thus, they are not
subject to vote of Parliament.
(b) The chairman of UPSC (on ceasing to hold office) is not eligible for further employment in the
Government of India or a state.
(c) A member of UPSC (on ceasing to hold office) is eligible for appointment as the chairman of
UPSC or a State Public Service Commission (SPSC), but not for any other employment in the
Government of India or a state.
The chairman or a member or UPSC is (after having completed his first term) not eligible for
reappointment to that office (i.e., not eligible for second term).
The UPSC presents, annually, to the president a report on its performance.
The President places this report before both the Houses of Parliament, along with a memorandum
explaining the cases where the advice of the Commission was not accepted and the reasons for such
All such cases of non-acceptance must be approved by the Appointments Committee of the
An individual ministry or department has no power to reject the advice of the UPSC.
The president can exclude posts, services and matters from the purview of the UPSC.
The Constitution states that the president, in respect to the all-India services and Central services
and posts may make regulations specifying the matters in which, it shall not be necessary for
UPSC to be consulted.
But all such regulations made by the president shall be laid before each House of Parliament for
at least 14 days.
The Parliament can amend or repeal them.
The Constitution visualises the UPSC to be the “watch-dog of merit system” in India.
STATE PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
All are same except, A State Public Service Commission consists of a chairman and other
members appointed by the governor of the state.
The Constitution does not specify the strength of the Commission but has left the matter to the
discretion of the Governor
The chairman and members of the Commission hold office for a term of six years or until they
attain the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier (in the case of UPSC, the age limit is 65 years).
JOINT STATE PUBLIC SERVICECOMMISSION
The Constitution makes a provision for the establishment of a Joint State Public Service
Commission (JSPSC) for two or more states.
While the UPSC and the SPSC are created directly by the Constitution, a JSPSC can be created
by an act of Parliament on the request of the state legislatures concerned.
JSPSC is a statutory and not a constitutional body.
The two states of Punjab and Haryana had a JSPSC for a short period, after the creation of
Haryana out of Punjab in 1966.
The chairman and members of a JSPSC are appointed by the president.
They hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 62 years, whichever is
They can be suspended or removed by the president.
They can also resign from their offices at any time by submitting their resignation letters to the
The number of members of a JSPSC and their conditions of service are determined by the
A JSPSC presents its annual performance report to each of the concerned state governors. Each
governor places the report before the state legislature.
The UPSC can also serve the needs of a state on the request of the state governor and with the
approval of the president.
As provided by the Government of India Act of 1919, a Central Public Service Commission was
set up in 1926 and entrusted with the task of recruiting civil servants.
The Government of India Act of 1935 provided for the establishment of not only a Federal
Public Service Commission but also a Provincial Public Service Commission and Joint Public
Service Commission for two or more provinces.
Article 280 of the Constitution of India provides for a Finance Commission as a quasi-judicial
It is constituted by the president of India every fifth year or at such earlier time as he considers
The Finance Commission consists of a chairman and four other members to be appointed by the
president. They hold office for such period as specified by the president in his order.
eligible for reappointment.
The Constitution authorises the Parliament to determine the qualifications of members of the
commission and the manner in which they should be selected.
Accordingly, the Parliament has specified the qualifications of the chairman and members of the
The chairman should be a person having experience in public affairs and the four other
members should be selected from amongst the following:
1. A judge of high court or one qualified to be appointed as one.
2. A person who has specialized knowledge of finance and accounts of the government.
3. A person who has wide experience in financial matters and in administration.
4. A person who has special knowledge of economics
the recommendations made by the Finance Commission are only of advisory nature and hence, not
binding on the government.
It is up to the Union government to implement its recommendations on granting money to the
‗It is nowhere laid down in the Constitution that the recommendations of the commission shall
be binding upon the Government of India or that it would give rise to a legal right in favour of
the beneficiary states to receive the money recommended to be offered to them by the
The Constitution of India envisages the Finance commission as the balancing wheel of fiscal
federalism in India.
However, its role in the Centre–state fiscal relations has been undermined by the emergence of
the Planning Commission, a non-constitutional and a non-statutory body.
Dr P V Rajamannar, the Chairman of the Fourth Finance commission, highlighted the overlapping
of functions and responsibilities between the Finance Commission and the Planning Commission in
federal fiscal transfers
NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR SCs
a constitutional body in the sense that it is directly established by Article 338 of the Constitution.
On the other hand, the other national commissions like the National Commission for Women
(1992), the National Commission for Minorities (1993), the National Commission for Backward
Classes (1993), the National Human Rights Commission (1993) and the National Commission
for Protection of Child Rights (2007) are statutory bodies in the sense that they are established
by acts of the Parliament
Evolution of the Commission
Originally, Article 338 of the Constitution provided for the appointment of a Special Officer for
Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) to investigate all matters relating to the
constitutional safeguards for the SCs and STs and to report to the President on their working.
He was designated as the Commissioner for SCs and STs and assigned the said duty.
Again, the 89th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2003 bifurcated the combined National
Commission for SCs and STs into two separate bodies, namely, National Commission for
Castes (under Article 338) and National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (under Article 338-
The separate National Commission for SCs came into existence in 2004.
It consists of a chairperson, a vice-chairperson and three other members.
They are appointed by the President by warrant
Report of the Commission
The commission presents an annual report to the president. It can also submit a report as and
when it thinks necessary.
The President places all such reports before the Parliament, along with a memorandum
explaining the action taken on the recommendations made by the Commission.
The memorandum should also contain the reasons for the non-acceptance of any of such
Powers of the Commission
The Commission is vested with the power to regulate its own procedure.
The Commission, while investigating any matter or inquiring into any complaint, has all the
powers of a civil court trying a suit and in particular in respect of the following matters:
(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person from any part of India and examining
him on oath;
(b) requiring the discovery and production of any document;
(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;
(d) requisitioning any public record from any court or office issuing summons for the examination
of witnesses and documents; and
(e) any other matter which the President may determine.
The Central government and the state governments are required to consult the Commission on all
major policy matters affecting the SCs.
The Commission is also required to discharge similar functions with regard to the other
backward classes (OBCs) and the Anglo-Indian Community as it does with respect to the SCs.
In other words, the Commission has to investigate all matters relating to the constitutional and
other legal safeguards for the OBCs and the Anglo-Indian Community and report to the President
upon their working.
NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR STs
Like the National Commission for Schedules Castes (SCs), the National Commission for
Scheduled Tribes (STs) is also a constitutional body in the sense that it is directly established
by Article 338-A of the Constitution.
Separate Commission for STs
The National Commission for SCs and STs came into being consequent upon passing of the
65th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1990.
The Commission was established under Article 338 of the Constitution with the objective of
monitoring all the safeguards provided for the SCs and STs under the Constitution or other
in order to safeguard the interests of the STs more effectively, it was proposed to
set up a separate National Commission for STs by bifurcating the existing combined National
Commission for SCs and STs. This was done by passing the 89th Constitutional Amendment
Act of 2003.
This Act further amended Article 338 and inserted a new Article 338-A in the Constitution.
The separate National Commission for STs came into existence in 2004.
It consists of a chairperson, a vice-chairperson and three other members.
They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
Their conditions of service and tenure of office are also determined by the President
SPECIAL OFFICER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES
Originally, the Constitution of India did not make any provision with respect to the Special
Officer for Linguistic Minorities.
Later, the States Reorganisation Commission (1953-55) made a recommendation in this regard.
Accordingly, the Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act of 1956 inserted a new Article 350-B
in Part XVII of the Constitution.
This article contains the following provisions:
1. There should be a Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities. He is to be appointed by the
President of India.
2. It would be the duty of the Special Officer to investigate all matters relating to the safeguards
provided for linguistic minorities under the Constitution
It must be noted here that the Constitution does not specify the qualifications, tenure, salaries and
allowances, service conditions and procedure for removal of the Special Officer for Linguistic
COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL OF INDIA
The Constitution of India (Article 148) provides for an independent office of the Comptroller
and Auditor General of India (CAG).
He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department.
He is the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at
both the levels—the Centre and the state.
His duty is to uphold the Constitution of India and laws of Parliament in the field of financial
This is the reason why Dr B R Ambedkar said that the CAG shall be the most important Officer
under the Constitution of India.
He is one of the bulwarks of the democratic system of government in India; the others being the
Supreme Court, the Election Commission and the Union Public Service Commission.
Appointment and Term
The CAG is appointed by the president of India by a warrant under his hand and seal.
The CAG, before taking over his office, makes and subscribes before the president an oath or
1. to bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India;
2. to uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India;
3. to duly and faithfully and to the best of his ability, knowledge and judgement perform the
duties of his office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will; and
4. to uphold the Constitution and the laws.
He holds office for a period of six years or upto the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
He can resign any time from his office by addressing the resignation letter to the president.
He can also be removed by the president on same grounds and in the same manner as a judge
of the Supreme Court.
In other words, he can be removed by the president on the basis of a resolution passed to that
effect by both the Houses of Parliament with special majority, either on the ground of proved
misbehavior or incapacity.
The Constitution has made the following provisions to safeguard and ensure the independence of CAG:
1. He is provided with the security of tenure. He can be removed by the president only in
accordance with the procedure mentioned in the Constitution. Thus, he does not hold his office
till the pleasure of the president, though he is appointed by him.
2. He is not eligible for further office, either under the Government of India or of any state, after
he ceases to hold his office.
3. His salary and other service conditions are determined by the Parliament. His salary is equal
to that of a judge of the Supreme Court.
4. Neither his salary nor his rights in respect of leave of absence, pension or age of retirement
can be altered to his disadvantage after his appointment.
5. The conditions of service of persons serving in the Indian Audit and Accounts Department and
the administrative powers of the CAG are prescribed by the president after consultation with
6. The administrative expenses of the office of the CAG, including all salaries, allowances and
pensions of persons serving in that office are charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India.
Thus, they are not subject to the vote of Parliament.
7. Further, no minister can represent the CAG in Parliament (both Houses) and no minister can
be called upon to take any responsibility for any actions done by him.
The role of CAG is to uphold the Constitution of India and the laws of Parliament in the field of
The accountability of the executive (i.e., council of ministers) to the Parliament in the sphere of
financial administation is secured through audit reports of the CAG.
The CAG is an agent of the Parliament and conducts audit of expenditure on behalf of the
Therefore, he is responsible only to the Parliament.
ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIA
The Constitution (Article 76) has provided for the office of the Attorney General for India.
the highest law officer in the country.
Appointment and Term
appointed by the president.
must be a person who is qualified to be appointed a judge of the Supreme Court.
In other words, he must be a citizen of India and he must have been a judge of some high court
for five years or an advocate of some high court for ten years or an eminent jurist, in the opinion
of the president.
The term of office of the AG is not fixed by the Constitution. Further, the Constitution does not
contain the procedure and grounds for his removal.
He holds office during the pleasure of the president.
This means that he may be removed by the president at any time.
He may also quit his office by submitting his resignation to the president.
Conventionally, he resigns when the government (council of ministers) resigns or is replaced, as
he is appointed on its advice.
The remuneration of the AG is not fixed by the Constitution. He receives such remuneration as
the president may determine.
Duties and Functions
As the chief law officer of the Government of India, the duties of the AG include the following:
1. To give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, which are referred to him
by the president.
2. To perform such other duties of a legal character that are assigned to him by the president.
1. To discharge the functions conferred on him by the Constitution or any other law.
2. The president has assigned the following duties to the AG: To appear on behalf of the
Government of India in all cases in the Supreme Court in whichthe Government of India is
3. To represent the Government of India in any reference made by the president to the Supreme
Court under Article 143 of the Constitution.
4. To appear (when required by the Government of India) in any high court in any case in which
the Government of India is concerned.
Rights and Limitations
In the performance of his official duties, the Attorney General has the right of audience in all courts in the territory of India.
Further, he has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both the Houses of
Parliament or their joint sitting and any committee of the Parliament of which he may be named a
member, but without a right to vote.
He enjoys all the privileges and immunities that are available to a member of Parliament.
SOLICITOR GENERAL OF INDIA
In addition to the AG, there are other law officers of the Government of India.
They are the solicitor general of India and additional solicitor general of India.
They assist the AG in the fulfilment of his official responsibilities.
It should be noted here that only the office of the AG is created by the Constitution.
In other words, Article 76 does not mention about the solicitor general and additional solicitor
The AG is not a member of the Central cabinet.
There is a separate law minister in the Central cabinet to look after legal matters at the
ADVOCATE GENERAL OF THE STATE
The Constitution (Article 165) has provided for the office of the advocate general for the states.
the highest law officer in the state. Thus he corresponds to the Attorney General of India.
Appointment and Term
The advocate general is appointed by the governor.
must be a person who is qualified to be appointed a judge of a high court.
must be a citizen of India and must have held a judicial office for ten years or been an advocate
of a high court for ten years.
The term of office of the advocate general is not fixed by the Constitution.
Further, the Constitution does not contain the procedure and grounds for his removal.
holds office during the pleasure of the governor.
This means that he may be removed by the governor at any time. He may also quit his office by
submitting his resignation to the governor.
Conventionally, he resigns when the government (council of ministers) resigns or is replaced, as
he is appointed on its advice.
The remuneration of the advocate general is not fixed by the Constitution.
He receives such remuneration as the governor may determine.
Duties and Functions
As the chief law officer of the government in the state, the duties of the advocate general include the
1. To give advice to the government of the state upon such legal matters which are referred to
him by the governor.
2. To perform such other duties of a legal character that are assigned to him by the governor.
3. To discharge the functions conferred on him by the Constitution or any otherlaw.
entitled to appear before any court of law within the state.
he has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of both the Houses of the state
legislature or any committee of the state legislature of which he may be named a member, but
without a right to vote.
enjoys all the privileges and immunities that are available to a member of the state legislature.