Yellow fever vaccine; necessity and risk

What is controversial about vaccines, and the yellow fever vaccine in particular? Why is a yellow fever vaccine necessary? Yellow fever spreads through mosquitoes. It is often associated with jaundice, hence the name yellow. It leads to death in a significant proportion of patients, which is why the vaccine is Read More …

What is Poverty Trap?

Definition: Poverty trap is a spiraling mechanism which forces people to remain poor. It is so binding in itself that it doesn’t allow the poor people to escape it. Poverty trap generally happens in developing and under-developing countries, and is caused by a lack of capital and credit to people. Description: Poverty Read More …

In biology, what is Primordial Soup?

This refers to a hypothesis regarding the origin of life on earth. It states that life on the planet originated around 4 billion years ago through the combination of abiogenic material on the earth’s surface and some form of external energy. This natural reaction led to the birth of the Read More …

In Biology, what is Extreme Male Brain?

Also known as the empathising-systemising theory, this refers to a theory of autism which states that the condition may be the result of overexposure of foetuses to testosterone from their mothers. Such overexposure to testosterone may cause the brains of people with autism to specifically adapt to analyse and construct Read More …

What is Biological Immortality?

This refers to the biological state where certain organisms like the bristlecone pine and the jellyfish can live forever. These organisms can be killed by external causes like injuries caused by harmful predators, catastrophic changes in their environment and fatal diseases, but they do not get fatally affected by the Read More …

Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

Scientists at the Bharathiar University, engaged in studying the ecology of soil microbes that colonise plant roots, have isolated a fungus that can enhance plant growth even in water deficit conditions. Numerous types of soil microbes colonise plant roots. Among them, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) are predominant and they are well-known Read More …

What is ‘two-part tariff’ in Economics?

This refers to an unconventional pricing technique where a business first charges an upfront fee from consumers for its product and later charges them additional fees based on their per unit usage. A club, for instance, might charge its members a standard membership fee for basic entry privileges and then Read More …

What are van der Waals (VdW) materials?

Until six years ago, such materials did not exist but today, researchers believe that they hold the key to a ‘post-silicon’ electronics. VdW materials are made of piles of ultra-thin layers that are held together by weak van der Waals bonds, which arise when atoms are in close proximity. The Read More …

What is information cascade in Sociology?

This refers to a social phenomenon where people make decisions purely based on the choices made by others, thus in effect ignoring any personal information that they may possess about a certain situation. It is prevalent, for instance, in the world of business where firms may simply copy the actions Read More …

What is ‘premature deindustrialisation’ in economics?

This refers to a phenomenon wherein the growth of an economy’s manufacturing sector begins to slow down prematurely in its path towards development. Economists generally picture economic development as a process by which labour and other resources gradually move from agriculture to the manufacturing sector before these resources move to Read More …