Peshawar’s Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre

Context The Khudai Khidmatgar was a non-violent movement against British occupation of the Indian subcontinent led by Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a Pashtun freedom fighter, in the North-West Frontier Province. Qissa Khwani Bazaar It is not much different from other marketplaces in older parts of South Asian cities. Indo-Islamic architectural styles Read More …

The Nihangs

Who is a Nihang? Nihang is an order of Sikh warriors, characterised by blue robes, antiquated arms such as swords and spears, and decorated turbans surmounted by steel quoits. Sikh historian Dr Balwant Singh Dhillon said, “Etymologically the word nihang in Persian means an alligator, sword and pen but the characteristics Read More …

Why January 26 is celebrated as Republic Day?

Context 26 January 1950 was the day India’s Constitution came into effect, and the country became a republic. The day- 26 January- was chosen for a particular reason, as it marked a key event in the struggle for India’s freedom from British rule. Why was 26 January chosen to be Read More …

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya

Context “India will always be grateful to Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya for his numerous efforts to make India free. Additionally, he was a scholar and thinker who worked towards spreading education among our citizens. Paid tributes to Mahamana at Parliament House this morning.” About Madan Mohan Malaviya December 25 is Read More …

Paikas of Odisha

Context President Ram Nath Kovind on December 8 laid the foundation stone for a memorial to mark 200 years of the Paika Rebellion, an uprising against colonial rule that predates the rebellion of the sepoys in 1857, and is sometimes described as the first war of independence. The Paika Memorial Read More …

Why India celebrates Independence Day on 15 August

Context In 1929, when Jawaharlal Nehru as Congress President gave the call for ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or total independence from British colonial rule, January 26 was chosen as the Independence Day. In fact, Congress party continued to celebrate it 1930 onwards, till India attained independence and January 26, 1950, was chosen as the Republic Read More …

The 19th Amendment and women’s suffrage

Context Exactly 99 years ago, the United States ratified the 19th Amendment to its Constitution to remove the gender bar on the right to vote, causing the largest-ever peaceful expansion of the country’s voting population in history. The 19th Amendment, ratified on August 18, 1920, and formally proclaimed on August Read More …

Co-operative Movement in Pre & Post-Independence era

Co-operative Movement in pre-Independence era The term cooperative Societies came into existence when the farmers of Poona and Ahmednagar spearheaded an agitation against the money lenders who were charging exorbitant rates of interest. Hence, British government came forward and passed three acts- the Deccan Agriculture Relief Act (1879), the Land Read More …

12 facts about the man who united India

1. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, born on October 31, 1875, was a political and social leader of Indiawho played a major role in the country’s struggle for independence and subsequently guided its integration into a united, independent nation. 2. As the first home minister and deputy prime minister of India, Patel organised relief for refugees Read More …

Swami Dayananda Saraswati

Swami Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of the Arya Samaj, was one of the makers of modern India. With an indigenous orientation, he wanted to bring a new social, religious, economic and political order in India. Taking inspiration from Veda, he criticized evil practices like idolatry, caste system, untouchability etc. as Read More …